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corded by Kirkpatrick is duly chronicled in Vi (Mahāmāri-durbhiksambhavati) 25.6.1 The next date from MSS. is obtained from a MS. in the Mahārāja's library noted by myself, but omitted by the Paņạit in his Catalogue. It is from No. 1648, a MS. of Caraka, I have since supplemented my vote by a tracing kindly sent by Colonel Pears. The full date is given in the Table. But as the king Ratnadeva is' mentioned in none of the chronicles, I am inclined to think that he must have been a local rāja, or a king of Western Nepal. 1

After Amstadeva my previous lists left one of those gaps which it is now most satisfactory to find filled in. The tradition reproduced by Wright and Bhagavanlāl quite fails here. Kirkpatrick alove gives correct, though inadequate, details, which are now supplemented by the new chronicle and, what is more important, verified by MSS.

As to Someśvara-deva, see the Table and note there (p. 25). Kirkpatrick's 'Buz Caum Deo of course represents Vijayakāmadeva; his . Any Mull' is a less recognizable equivalent of Arimalla; but in Nepalese documents a and are easily confused. After the reign of Abhayadeva, which, though called by Kirkpatrick 'inauspicious,' was anyhow fairly long as a goodly array of MSS. now shows, the chronicles hitherto available quite break down.

Even if Jayadeva and Anantadeva were brothers," as Wriglit (p. 162) and Bh. state, the latter certainly did not reign at the same time. Two kings whose names, Jayabhima and Jayaśāhadeva, I have taken from the chronicle, * intervened ; and it is extremely satisfactory to find that one of them (Jayabhima) is fully attested by a dated MS.; so that again the new chronicle and newly-discovered MS. 1 confirm one another.


I Supposing the era to be that of Nepal, which I think probable from the writing.

& The great dearth' recorded by Kirkpatrick for this and the previous reign are duly registered in onr ohronicle (256 ; plate, fig. 6. 1. 3), where famine-prices for grain are also mentioned. The prices are given in greater detail in V8 (Newari portion of chronicle) at fol. 396 for Samvat 352.

3 The birth-list of the chronicle (V) makes Ananta not the son of Abhaya, but of a certain Sri-Rajadeva and of Rudramadevi.

4 Fol. 26a. The whole passage, following on that reproduced in 25b; plate, fig. 6, rans thus : समच्छर इसप्तपञ्च चापाद शचिद्विनौया पुनर्वसु सोमवासरेत्यादि चालन चतुर्मासा ॥ पुष्याभिसेक राजा श्रीजयभौमदेव वर्ष १३ मा ३. I formerly thought this date, which, as Dr Kielhorn kindly informs me, corresponds to 7th June 1255, referred to the coronation of Jayabbīma, in spite of the punctuation, which seems not always trustworthy in this MS. On re-reading the passage, however, I now consider that it must refer to the first shock of the earthquake, which is accordingly stated to have lasted at intervals over four months. This accords better with the subsequent date, 377, of a MS., once the property of the late Paņạit Bhagvanlal Indraji. I may here mention that I have made enquiries by letter for this MS. in the Bhagvān. lal collection of the Bombay Asiatic Society, but without success. From ys (fol. 366) we learn that in 378 Caitra Jayabhimadeva had become rāja, with Jayasimpla (sihamalladeva) as yuvarāja.


Of the next king, Anantamalla we have now a goodly array of dates from MSS. Besides these there is an interesting note in Kirkpatrick (p. 264) stating that “in this prince's reign and in the Newar year 408, or Sumbuth 1344,8 mány Khassins (a western tribe) emigrated to Nepal, and settled there; and three years after in the Newar year 411 a considerable number of Tirhoot families also planted themselves there." What this really amounted to may be told in the words of the chronicle (f. 266; Pl. fig. 7): "12 years 3 months after [i.e., after the beginning of Ananta's reign, or after the last event mentioned, a quarrel between his sons] the Khasiya king Jayatāri first entered, Samvat four hundred and eight in the month Pausa. After a slaughter of (eight?) hundred Khasiyas the rest retired to the jungles ?] and the country resumed its ordinary state. On the 13th of Phālguna sudi of the same year Jayatāri again entered [the country, as if] for a friendly purpose, [but] he burned with fire villages and other places. He visited (?) the Syemgu-chaitsya), saw the image of Lokeśvara at Bug[a]ma * and visited (?) the Pasupati (shrine]. He got safe back to his kingdom. [This happened in] Samvat four hundred and nine. Again the (king) of Tirhut entered [Nepal]. This happened. [in] Samvat four hundred and eleven in the month Māgha." 5

Kirkpatrick's “emigrations” were thus more or less predatory incursions, which as we shall see, became increasingly common later on.

After the death of Ananta a troublous time ensued, and one that has been hitherto extremely obscure. In my previous lists I had to note at this time : “ Kings uncertain 6 for 60 years. Though much

1 See MS. of the Mahālakṣmīvrata nambered 1320 and noticed at pp 47-8, 123.4 of the Catalogue. Mr. R. Sewell has kindly verified the date, which works out to 2nd April, A.D. 1260.

% One of these is that given at p. 44 ( 37 ) of the Cat., and there referred to Anandamalla. In my tracing however the name Ananta is quite clear. Wright (pp. 162-65) makes a similar confusion. I have no verificatior of the date at p. 63 fin, of the Cat., which makes Abhayamalla still reigning in N.S. 385.

$ The double date is interesting, though the Vikrama Samvat is not known to have been in use in Nepal at this early time.

4 On this celebrated image see Foucher Iconographie'p. 100 and his pl. iy. 1 from a miniature in the Library of the As. Soc. of Bengal, where also the village-riame is spelt Bugama, not 'Bungmati' as now.

6 For the text see Plate, fig. 7, lines 1-5.

8 The main reason of this uncertainty, viz., the varying accounts of Jayasthiti. malla's ancestors, who never raled in Nepal proper at all, is suggested below.

J. 1. 2

still remains uncertain, it is satisfactory to find that this long interval is shortened on both sides by dated reigns that may be regarded as fixed.

The first of these is the reign of Jayānandadeva which followed that of Ananta and is certified by a date (N.S. 438) in the Catalogue (p. 73). which I had previously noted in the MS. The next king, according to the 'chronicle, was Jayarudramalla. His accession, the coronation of his co-regent, and his own death (svargastha) and "suttee' of his four wives are recorded. It is probably significant that the date given in two sections of the chronicle for the last event is only a few months 8 after the invasion of Harisiņhadeva of Simraon.

The history of the next twenty years cannot at present be satisfactorily told, until the Newari of V 3 has been interpreted. Besides the well-attested invasion of Harisim hadeva, several other foreign powers made themselves felt at this time. One of these was an invasion by Ādit[y]amalla. After narrating the death of Jayarudra, Vi adds merely namica are stag: 1 But V 3 narrates the same event more fully. The Newari sentence begins संवत् ४४८ फाल्गण शक्ल सप्तमी खसिया राजा. aletan (46a; Pl., fig. 10.), so that we learn the exact date (448 Phālguna sudi 7) and the interesting fact that Āditya-was a king of Western Nepal, thus foreshadowing the Gorkha conquest of more recent times.

Returning to the semi-Sanskrit account of V!, which curiously makes no mention of the invasion of Harisimha, we find (275) that an infant son of Jayarudra died a few days after his father's death. Alis daughter Sati-nāyakadevi was placed under the guardianship of her grandmother Padumalladevi. * The young princess (after being crowned Rani, according to Kirkpatrick), was married to Haricandradeva belonging to the royal family of Benares. He appears to have

1 नचान्तरे राजा श्रीजयानन्ददेव प्रवर्तते तदनन्तरे। औजयरुद्रमज says the chroni cle (27 a fin.) after narrating the events of Ananta's reign. This probably implies an interval between the two latter reigns. Fleet, Gupta Inscrr, Introd. p. 186 contrasts the meanings of antare and anantaram, especially in the records of Nepal.

% A co-regent of this king was Jagārimalla. The mention of this prince in V. f. 27a fin. 27b) is very obscure, but 1% distinctly describes him (45a.) as Samraja (with Jayarudra) between N.S. 440 at 443. He died in 464 (ib. 506).

3 N.S. 446 (in figures and chronogram) Āşādha pūrņami f. 276, Prathama Aşādha pārņimā 466 (but Aşā. was not intercalated this year). Muhammadan authorities cited in Miss Duff's Chronology of India.

* gat wat anaat ain: false latgamat afrafen (276). The sentence forms a choice example of the grammar of Vi referred to above.

6 FT979 (sic) 276. Rajah of Benares,' Kirkpatrick,

lived in Nepal some time, but was poisoned after some years'ı (katipayavarsāntare). After this his brother Gopāladeva accompanied by Jagatsimhadeva (called in Vi Kārņātava[m]śaja and in V3 (496)

Tirhuti-yā Jagatsimbakumăra") seized the person of Nayakadevi %. The allies then appear to have taken Bhatgāon and Patan. Gopāladeva was subsequently beheaded by Jagatsimha's followers. After this the prince Jagatsimha enjoyed the sovereignty for a few days; but he was afterwards put into confinement, 3 ; by whom we are not told. His daughter was Rajal[1]adevi *; and her mother Nayakadevi died 10 days after her birth; so that (like her mother) she was brought up by her paternal grandmother, whose name was Devaladevi. I do not understand the reference to Pasupatimal[l]adeva's that immediately follows (Plate ; fig. 8, 1.1). Possibly he was the representative of some rival line of kings, as we read directly after, that by the consent of both royal families Jayarājadeva was made king on 467 Srāvaņa badi 4” whicin was subsequently 6 ratified by general consent.

About the reign of Jayarāja's son and successor Jayārjūna some uncertainty remains, though this could probably be removed by the full interpretation of the present chronicle. Passed over by all the histories, his existence and reign were first pointed out by the present writec from the colophons of Cambridge MSS. Even in the present chronicle his reign and its duration are not formally recorded, though he is several times referred to as 'Sri Jayārjuna rājā' and 'Jayārjuna-n;pa.

The reason of all this is not far to seek.
In 4747, that is while Jayarājadeva was still reigning, took place

1 V8 (47a) gives the exact date of his 'violent death' qua (sic) ER N.S. 455 Jyeştha sudi 5.

% ज. समाहित संग्टद्य कृतं नायकदेवी

3 श्रीजगतसिंह कुहारस्य परिजने[न] शिरच्छेत्वा श्रीगोपालदेवमृत्यु । तदनन्तरे कतिपयदिवसे श्रीजगतसिंह कुमरेण राज भुंजितं । पश्चात्तु कुह्मर वंधनं भवेत् । तस्य पुनौ औराजलदेवौ नामः । जातेन दश दिवसाने मातुच मृत्यु। पितामही श्रौदेवल• etc., (seo Plate, fig. 8.).

4 We are told in 13 (516) that this princess's mother was Nāyakadeři; 80 that Jagatsimha carried off the bride of his ally's brother. Rajalla was born N.S. 467 Pauşa badi 10.

6 More is said of him and (possibly the same) 'bandhana' in V3 (52 a) under date 469 Märgaś, sa. 12.

6 The punctuation of fig. 8 1.2 would lead one to sappose at first sight that the general ratification preceded the particular one (Vaišākha being 3 months earlier); but the second date doubtless refers to the birth. In all birth-entries the date comes first.

7 I transcribe the Newari of V3 (536): 9 898 Fifa Dietagreatestarea the marriage of the prince Jayasthiti, a descendant of Harisimha of Simraon, with Rājalladevi. Jayasthiti was reigning when the chronicle was concluded and the chronicler naturally magnifies the powers that be' and says little of the title of the lawful king whom Jayasthiti had managed to defeat and depose. But we see from the colophons of MSS. the real state of things. In 484 Kārttika, October 1363 (a verified date : see the Table) Jayārjana was on the throne and the colophon of the next MS. is fortunately rery explicit. The MS. (see Cat. p. 88) was written in a well-known vihār in Lalit:Patan and the colophon adds in 491 (A.D. 371) that Jafārjuna was victoriously reigning (not only there but) 'Nepāla-mandale' which we may construe to mean the whole of the valley. The scribes call Jayārjana king down to February 1376.1 His name is also mentioned in connexion with the initiation-ceremony of Dharmamalla son of Jayasthiti and Rājalla in 497 Jyestha & (summer of 1377). On the other hand about 503 ( date of latest event in VI) we find a reference to Jayārjuna as #9 a: axlaya 24t3 which can only mean his defeat, followed as it is by an acknowledgment of Jayasthiti as king of Nepal. That Jayārjuna, however, did not submit without a struggle may be seen from the interesting colophon at Cat. p. 39, 1. 6 (unfortunately not dated) from which we learn that the MS. was copied " in the victorious reiga of Jayasthiti," and that “at that time the king named Jayārjuna was entering, with his ally, the Tripurarāja 4 in great commotion."

Jayasthiti was evidently a patron of literature; not only are MSS. of his reign more numerous than in any preceding, but we find from the chronicle that even before his accession he celebrated the birth-ceremony of his son Dharmamalla by a performance of a 'four-act Rāmā

सकौवनम्मिज्याङा ख(?)पोम्दुम्वियाभ्यखाचोनं कालालिव विवाह जव | The princess's name is not mentioned; but auother marriage hardly would have been mentioned in the


1 Verified, see note to Table. I have re-examined the date in Cambridge Add., 1488, which I formerly published as equivalent to 501 or 1384. The writing is very faint. See now note 3 to table below, p. 27.

% The passage is evidently an interesting cne, though unfortunately the end is not clear to me : पुनः बटुकः (करणे) सम्वत् ४९७ ज्येष्ठ शुदि पञ्चमौ बुधवार नत महउदाय सत्य बालरामायन मण्डलाकार श्री जयार्जन राजा सुपण्डियामनकु भारोस ॥

8 The words following पो are चाय्या(?)निजानाश्रयं नता द्वादश वत्यराण्यदवनौनाथसु, । भक्तापुरः ॥ लोकेमेत्य (sic) गुणान्विनो विजयते रामावतारोपरः सश्रीमान् जयस्थिति राज मल पति : नेपाल भूपालकः ॥

4 A Tripura-rāja is several times referred to in the chronicle.

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