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corded by Kirkpatrick is duly chronicled in V1 (Mahāmārî-durbhikṣambhavati) 25.b.1 The next date from MSS. is obtained from a MS. in the Mahārāja's library noted by myself, but omitted by the Pandit in his Catalogue. It is from No. 1648, a MS. of Caraka, I have since supplemented my note by a tracing kindly sent by Colonel Pears. The full date is given in the Table. But as the king Ratnadeva is mentioned in none of the chronicles, I am inclined to think that he must have been a local rāja, or a king of Western Nepal. 1
After Amṛtadeva my previous lists left one of those gaps which it is now most satisfactory to find filled in. The tradition reproduced by Wright and Bhagavanlal quite fails here. Kirkpatrick aloue gives correct, though inadequate, details, which are now supplemented by the new chronicle and, what is more important, verified by MSS.
As to Someśvara-deva, see the Table and note there (p. 25). Kirkpatrick's 'Buz Caum Deo' of course represents Vijayakāmadeva; his ‘Any Mull' is a less recognizable equivalent of Arimalla; but in Nepalese documents and are easily confused. After the reign of Abhayadeva, which, though called by Kirkpatrick 'inauspicious,' was anyhow fairly long as a goodly array of MSS. now shows, the chronicles hitherto available quite break down.
Even if Jayadeva and Anantadeva were brothers, as Wright (p. 162) and Bh. state, the latter certainly did not reign at the same time. Two kings whose names, Jayabhima and Jayaśāhadeva, I have taken from the chronicle, intervened; and it is extremely satisfactory
1 Supposing the era to be that of Nepal, which I think probable from the writing. • 'The great dearth' recorded by Kirkpatrick for this and the previous reign are duly registered in our chronicle (25b; plate, fig. 6. 1. 3), where famine-prices for grain are also mentioned. The prices are given in greater detail in V8 (Newari portion of chronicle) at fol. 396 for Samvat 352.
8 The birth-list of the chronicle (V2) makes Ananta not the son of Abhaya, but of a certain Sri-Rajadeva and of Rudramadevī.
♦ Fol. 26α. The whole passage, following on that reproduced in 25b; plate, fig. 6, thus : सम्बच्छर वसप्तपञ्च चाषाद शुचिद्वितीया पुनर्वसु सोमवासरेत्यादि चालन चतुर्मासा ॥ पुष्याभिषेक राजा श्रीजयभौमदेव वर्ष १३ मा ३. I formerly thought this date, which, as Dr Kielhorn kindly informs me, corresponds to 7th June 1255, referred to the coronation of Jayabhīma, in spite of the punctuation, which seems not always trustworthy in this MS. On re-reading the passage, however, I now consider that it must refer to the first shock of the earthquake, which is accordingly stated to have lasted at intervals over four months. This accords better with the subsequent date, 377, of a MS., once the property of the late Pandit Bhagvanlal Indraji. I may here mention that I have made enquiries by letter for this MS. in the Bhagvanlal collection of the Bombay Asiatic Society, but without success. From V8 (fol. 36b) we learn that in 378 Caitra Jayabhimadeva had become raja, with Jayasimha (sihamalladeva) as yuvarāja.
to find that one of them (Jayabhima) is fully attested by a dated MS.; so that again the new chronicle and newly-discovered MS. 1 confirm one another.
Of the next king, Anantamalla we have now a goodly array of dates 2 from MSS. Besides these there is an interesting note in Kirkpatrick (p. 264) stating that "in this prince's reign and in the, Newar year 408, or Sumbuth 1344,3 mány Khassias (a western tribe) emigrated to Nepal, and settled there; and three years after in the Newar year 411 a considerable number of Tirhoot families also planted themselves there." What this really amounted to may be told in the words of the chronicle (f. 266; Pl. fig. 7): " 12 years 3 months after [i.e., after the beginning of Ananta's reign, or after the last event mentioned, a quarrel between his sons] the Khasiya king Jayatāri first entered, Samvat four hundred and eight in the month Pausa. After a slaughter of (eight?) hundred Khasiyas the rest retired [to the jungles ?] and the country resumed its ordinary state. On the 13th of Phalguna sudi of the same year Jayatāri again entered [the country, as if] for a friendly purpose, [but] he burned with fire villages and other places. He visited (?) the Syemgu-chait[ya], saw the image of Lokeśvara at Bug[a]ma and visited (?) the Paśupati [shrine]. He got safe back to his kingdom. [This happened in] Samvat four hundred and nine. Again the [king] of Tirhut entered [Nepal]. This happened [in] Samvat four hundred and eleven in the month Māgha.” 5
Kirkpatrick's "emigrations" were thus more or less predatory incursions, which as we shall see, became increasingly common later on.
After the death of Anauta a troublous time ensued, and one that has been hitherto extremely obscure. In my previous lists I had to note at this time: " Kings uncertain for 60 years. Though much
1 See MS. of the Mahālakṣmīvrata numbered 1320 and noticed at pp 47-8, 123-4 of the Catalogue. Mr. R. Sewell has kindly verified the date, which works out to 2nd April, A.D. 1260.
2 One of these is that given at p. 44 () of the Cat., and there referred to Anandamalla. In my tracing however the name Ananta is quite clear. Wright (pp. 162-65) makes a similar confusion. I have no verification of the date at p. 63 fin, of the Cat., which makes Abhayamalla still reigning in N.S. 385.
8 The double date is interesting, though the Vikrama Samvat is not known to have been in use in Nepal at this early time.
• On this celebrated image see Foucher 'Iconographie' p. 100 and his pl. ÍV. 1 from a miniature in the Library of the As. Soc. of Bengal, where also the village-name is spelt Bugama, not 'Bungmati' as now.
5 For the text see Plate, fig. 7, lines 1-5.
• The main reason of this uncertainty, viz., the varying accounts of Jayasthiti. malla's ancestors, who never ruled in Nepal proper at all; is suggested below.
J. 1. 2
still remains uncertain, it is satisfactory to find that this long interval is shortened on both sides by dated reigns that may be regarded as fixed.
The first of these is the reign of Jayanandadeva which followed that of Ananta and is certified by a date (N.S. 438) in the Catalogue (p. 73) which I had previously noted in the MS. The next king, according to the chronicle, was Jayarudramalla. His accession, the coronation of his co-regent, and his own death (svargastha) and "suttee” of his four wives are recorded. It is probably significant that the date given in two sections of the chronicle for the last event is only a few months 3 after the invasion of Harisimhadeva of Simraon.
The history of the next twenty years cannot at present be satisfactorily told, until the Newari of V 3 has been interpreted. Besides the well-attested invasion of Harisimhadeva, several other foreign powers made themselves felt at this time. One of these was an invasion by Ādit[y]amalla. After narrating the death of Jayarudra, V1 adds merely azrat Brfęand âqı@ sfag: | But V3 narrates the same event more fully. The Newari sentence begins संवत् ४४८ फाल्गुण शुक्ल सप्तमी खसिया राजा.
Jan-(46a; Pl., fig. 10.9), so that we learn the exact date (448 Phālguṇa sudi 7) and the interesting fact that Aditya was a king of Western Nepal, thus foreshadowing the Gorkha conquest of more recent times.
Returning to the semi-Sanskrit account of V1, which curiously makes no mention of the invasion of Harisimha, we find (276) that an infant son of Jayarudra died a few days after his father's death. His daughter Sati-nayakadevi was placed under the guardianship of her grandmother Padumalladevi. The young princess (after being crowned Rani, according to Kirkpatrick), was married to Haricandradeva belonging to the royal family of Benares. He appears to have
1 तचान्तरे राजा श्रीजयानन्ददेव प्रवर्तते तदनन्तरे । श्रीजयरुद्रमज्ञ says the chroni cle (27 a fin.) after narrating the events of Ananta's reign. This probably implies an interval between the two latter reigns. Fleet, Gupta Inscrr. Introd. p. 186 contrasts the meanings of antare and anantaram, especially in the records of Nepal.
2 A co-regent of this king was Jayārimalla. The mention of this prince in V. f. 27a fin. 27b) is very obscure, but V2 distinctly describes him (45a.) as Samrāja (with Jayarudra) between N.S. 440 at 443. He died in 464 (ib. 50b).
3 N.S. 446 (in figures and chronogram) Aṣāḍha pūrṇami f. 276, Prathama Aṣāḍha pūrṇimā 466 (but Aṣā. was not intercalated this year). Muhammadan authorities cited in Miss Duff's Chronology of India.
* पुत्री सती नायक देवी नामः पितामहौश्रीपदुमलदेवी प्रतिपालितं ( 276). The sentence forms a choice example of the grammar of Vl referred to above. (sic) 276. Rajah of Benares,' Kirkpatrick,
lived in Nepal some time, but was poisoned after some years' (katipayavarṣāntare). After this his brother Gopaladeva accompanied by Jagatsimhadeva (called in V1 Kārṇāṭava[m]śaja and in V3 (496)
Tirhuti-ya Jagatsimhakumăra") seized the person of Nayakadevi 2. The allies then appear to have taken Bhatgaon and Patan. Gopaladeva was subsequently beheaded by Jagatsimha's followers. After this the prince Jagatsimha enjoyed the sovereignty for a few days; but he was afterwards put into confinement, 3; by whom we are not told. His daughter was Rajaladevi; and her mother Nayakadevi died 10 days after her birth; so that (like her mother) she was brought up by her paternal grandmother, whose name was Devaladevi. I do not understand the reference to Pasupatimal adeva 5 that immediately follows (Plate; fig. 8, 1. 1). Possibly he was the representative of some rival line of kings, as we read directly after, that "by the consent of both royal families Jayarajadeva was made king on 467 Srāvaṇa badi 4" which was subsequently 6 ratified by general consent.
About the reign of Jayaraja's son and successor Jayārjuna some uncertainty remains, though this could probably be removed by the full interpretation of the present chronicle. Passed over by all the histories, his existence and reign were first pointed out by the present writer from the colophons of Cambridge MSS. Even in the present chronicle his reign and its duration are not formally recorded, though he is several times referred to as 'Sri Jayārjuna rājā' and 'Jayārjuna-nṛpa. '
The reason of all this is not far to seek.
In 4747, that is while Jayarajadeva was still reigning, took place
1 V8 (47a) gives the exact date of his violent death' (sic) Er N..S. मृत्यु 455 Jyeşṭha sudi 5.
* अ० समाहित संग्टह्य कृतं नायकदेवी
3 श्रीजगतसिंह कुमरस्य परिजने [न] शिरच्छेत्वा श्रीगोपालदेवमृत्यु । तदनन्तरे कतिपयदिवसे श्रीजगतसिंह कुमरेण राज भुंजितं । पश्चानु कुंझर वंधनं भवेत् । तस्य पुत्री श्रीराजलदेवी नामः । जातेन दश दिवसान्ते मातुख मृत्यु । पितामही श्रीदेवल • etc., (see
Plate, fig. 8).
4 We are told in V3 (516) that this princess's mother was Nāyakadevi; so that Jagatsimha carried off the bride of his ally's brother. Rājalla was born N.S. 467 Pauşa badi 10.
More is said of him and (possibly the same) 'bandhana' in V3 (52 a) under date 469 Märgaś, su. 12.
6 The punctuation of fig. 8 1.2 would lead one to suppose at first sight that the general ratification preceded the particular one (Vaiśākha being 3 months earlier); but the second date doubtless refers to the birth. In all birth-entries the date comes
7 I transcribe the Newari of V3 (536): 898 A Kfc HaafañariĦaq3⁄4¶
the marriage of the prince Jayasthiti, a descendant of Harisimha of Simraon, with Rajalladevi. Jayasthiti was reigning when the chronicle was concluded and the chronicler naturally magnifies the powers that be' and says little of the title of the lawful king whom Jayasthiti had managed to defeat and depose. But we see from the colophons of MSS. the real state of things. In 484 Kārttika, October 1363 (a verified date see the Table) Jayārjana was on the throne and the colophon of the next MS. is fortunately very explicit. The MS. (see Cat. p. 88) was written in a well-known vihār in Lalit-Patan and the colophon adds in 491 (A.D. 371) that Jayārjuna was victoriously reigning (not only there but) 'Nepala-mandale' which we may construe to mean the whole of the valley. The scribes call Jayārjuna king down to February 1376. 1 His name is also mentioned in connexion with the initiation-ceremony of Dharmamalla son of Jayasthiti and Rājalla in 497 Jyeṣṭha & (summer of 1377). On the other hand about 503 (date of latest event in V1) we find a reference to Jayārjuna as भग्न देवः बशाज्जयार्जुन नृपो which can only mean his defeat, followed as it is by au acknowledgment of Jayasthiti as king of Nepal. That Jayārjuna, however, did not submit without a struggle may be seen from the interesting colophon at Cat. p. 39, 1. 6 (unfortunately not dated) from which we learn that the MS. was copied "in the victorious reign of Jayasthiti," and that “at that time the king named Jayārjuna was entering, with his ally, the Tripurarāja 4 in great commotion."
Jayasthiti was evidently a patron of literature; not only are MSS. of his reign more numerous than in any preceding, but we find from the chronicle that even before his accession he celebrated the birth-ceremony of his son Dharmamalla by a performance of a 'four-act Rāmā
सकोवनम्बियाडा ख(?) पोन्दुम्वियाभ्यखाचोनं ङा लालिव विवाह जय || The princess's name is not mentioned; but another marriage hardly would have been mentioned in the
1 Verified, see note to Table. I have re-examined the date in Cambridge Add., 1488, which I formerly published as equivalent to 504 or 1384. The writing is very faint. See now note 3 to table below, p. 27.
2 The passage is evidently an interesting cne, though unfortunately the end is not clear to me: पुनः बटुकर्णे (करणे ) सम्वत् ४९० ज्येष्ठ शुदि पञ्चमो बुधवार तत महत्व नृत्य बालरामायन् मण्डलाकार श्री जयार्जन राजा सुपण्डियामनकु भारोस ॥
8 The words following नृपो are चाय ( ? ) निजानाश्रयं नस्ता द्वादश वत्स राष्यदवनौनाथसु, | भक्तापुरः ॥ लोकेशेत्य (sic) गुणान्वितो विजयते रामावतारोपरः सश्रौमान् जयस्थिति राज मल्ल न्टपति : नेपाल भूपालक : ॥
4 A Tripura-raja is several times referred to in the chronicle.