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N.B.-The letters within [ ] are more or less broken. The latters within ( ) are corrections, and those within (*) aro additions.
On examining the 34 inscriptions with regnal years, they are found
to fall mostly in two groups: First year.
Group No. I. (20 inscriptions) :-
= 28th 1040
= 44th 1045
= 49th 1049
= 58th 1055
59th 1055 (6)
= 64th 1068
Group No. II. (10 inscriptions) :-
= 23rd = 48th = 49th = 59th = 61st
= 64th year 1069
= 72nd :. According to this group, Çaka 998 = 1st year.
Besides these, there are three inscriptions according to which the first year would fall in Çaka 999, and one inscription, probably a mis
1 take, according to which the first year would fall in Çaka 996.
The difference of one year between the regral years of Group I and Group II, may be due to the fact that like aŋka years those in Group No. 1 omitted number one. This omission of number one is found also in the inscriptions of the next king Kāmārņava. Cõraganga was crowned in Çaka 999; and he is more likely to have come to the throne in Çaka 998, than Çaka 997, as kings naturally would prefer to be crowned on the earliest auspicious day possible. Inscription No. 271 of Dirgbāsi [Ep. Rep., p. 18 and Ep. Ind., IV, p. 316, v.°7] shows that in Çaka 997 Rājarāja was living. Calculations from the preceding kings corroborate the conclusion of Group No. II. [see infra, p. 109]. For these reasons Çaka 998 would preferably appear to be the first year of Cõraganga. The last year is given in No. 172 of Mukhaliŋgam, 73rd year Çaka
1069. In Çaka 1070, Kāmārņava's year 3 Last year.
began. Consequently taking Çaka 998 as the first year, Cõraganga actually ruled till his 72nd year. In Puri and Kēndupățnā plates he is credited with a rule of seventy years. In these plates Kūmārņava is said to have been crowned in Çaka 1064, month Pausa. This cannot literally be correct; as several inscriptions exist with Cõraga ga's regnal years from Çaka 1065 to 1069, while Kāmārņava's inscriptions with regnal years begin with Çaka 1070 as his 3rd year. The coronation of Kāmārņava in Çaka 1064 might possibly have been as a regent; for in that year Cõțaganga would have been very old, probably
than eighty, and might have arranged to transfer the active duties of a kingship to his the then eldest son Kāmārņava. Cõraganga's father was Rājarāja II of the Eastern Gaŋga family ;
and his mother was Rājasundari, the His family.
daughter of the Coļa king, “ Coda-mahibhuj-ātmajām” (Vizagapatam plates). This Coļa king was Vira Rājāndra Dēva I, surnamed Parakēçarivarman (A.D. 1052-1070); and thus Cõraganga became related to the great Coļa king Kulõttuŋga Cola I, as his sister's son. The Cõragaŋga of the Gaŋga family is apparently a different person from the Cosagaŋga of the sēki plates, described as the son (priy-ātmjam) of Kulottuyga Coļa I [verse 25, 1. 50, Ep. Ind., VI, p. 340], who bore the surname Rājarāja and was deputed by his father (in Çaka 1006) to rule the Vēngi territory.
Puri and Kēndupātnā copperplates name only three ancestors of Cosaganga; but the three Vizagapatam plates trace out his genealogy to the reputed founder of the family, including the above three. Consequently the account of the Ganga family will be incomplete if these ancestors are omitted. A full genealogical table from the reputed founder Virasimha to the last known Ganga king NȚsimha Dāva IV is annexed at the end of this article. The list of Cosagaŋya's ancestors has been compiled from the Vizagapatam plates, and the Nadagam plates of Vajrahasta edited with two tables by Mr. G. V. Rāmamurti in Ep. Ind., Vol. IV, p. 183 ff.
The calculation of dates from Vajrahasta seem to corroborate the conclusion that Çaka 998 was the first year of Coşaganga. Vajrahasta was crowned in Çaka 960 [v. 8, 11. 34-7, Nadagam plates, pp. 190-1]. He is given 33 years in the Vizagapatam plate dated Çaka 1003, and 30 years in the V. plate dated Çaka 1040. The first figure may be the regnal year, and the second one actual years of rule minus months. Rājarāja is given eight years in all the V. plates, and this figure I take to be the actual year. If in the regnal years, the number one used to be omitted, as appears from the subsequent aşka years and from the regnal years of Kāmārņava VII, then
998=the 8th year of Rājarāja. .. Cõraganga could not have then succeeded to the throne before Çaka 998.
Several queens of Cõraganga are named in the inscriptions,Kastūrikāmodini, Indirā and Candralēkhā (Puri and Kēndupātnā Plates); Somala Mahādēvi (No. 146), Lakşmi Dāvi (Nos. 210, 392, and 393), and Prithvi Mahādāvi (No, 211), (in the stone inscriptions); Nos. 203 and 215 of Mukhaliŋgam record grants of certain unnamed queens of his.
He had several sons. The copperplates mention Kámārņava, Rāghava, Rājarāja and Aniyaŋkabhima; in No. 239, one Umāvallabha is said to have been his son.
He had apparently a brother (or brothers), for No. 153 records a grant of his younger brother's wife.
Cõraganga had the family surnames Ananta-Varmman, and
Cālukya-ganga, and the special surnames His titles.
Gaŋgēçvara and probably Vikrama-Ganga. His virudas are given in nearly the same words in No. 149 of Mukhalingam and No. 392 of Rõņāŋki. They run as follows in Rõņāŋki:
“Samara-mukh-ānēka-ripu-darppa-marddana-bhuja-bala-parālorama parama-māhēs(s)vara parama-bhattāraka maha-raj-adhirāja paramēs() vara nava-navati-sahasra-kumjar-ādhis(ç)vara tri-Kaling-adhipati [these two omitted in Mukhaliŋgam] Gaingg-ānvay-āvalambana-stambha. The inscriptions show him to be the most famous and powerful
king of this dynasty. According to all the Historical facts.
copperplates he conquered the king of Utkala. According to Vizagapatam plates, after conquering the Utkala king he replaced him as a feudatory; and he conquered also Vēŋgi.
According to Puri and Kēndupātnā plates, Gaŋgēçvara first destroyed the fortified town of Aramyā or Anamy, and then defeating on the banks of the Ganges the king of Mandāra, pursued him in his flight. Is the tract Mandāra identifiable with Sirkar Mandāran of Ain-i Akbari [Vol. II., p. 141], whose headquarters, Garh Mandāran (now known as Bhitargarh, eight miles west of Ārām-bagh) is about fifty miles from the Ganges on the map, and which place was a well-known frontier town in the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries ?.
By these conquests, Cõraganga extended his kingdom from the Ganges on the north to the river Gautami (Gödāvari) on the south. On the west the frontier was ill-defined. But from inscriptions of the Cedi kings of Dakşina-Kõsala he appears to have fought with them, and Ratnadēva is said to have defeated him [Ep. Ind., Vol. I, p. 40, v. 4; Do., p. 47, v. 5]. Ratnadēva flourished about A.D. 1114-1145.
He was evidently in good terms with the Sēna kings of Bengal; in p. of the vallāla-caritam of Ananda Bhatta, edited by Paņdit 'Haraprasad Çāstri, Vijaya Sena is specially described as Coraganga-sakhaḥ, a friend of Cõragaŋga.
He was a good patron of religious works and charities. Under his orders was built the great temple of Jagannātha at Puri. Numerous grants of him, his relatives and his officers have been recorded in the temple of Mukhaliŋgēçvara (Madhukēçvara ?) at Mukhaliņgam, Ganjam District.
Science and letters were cultivated during his rule. No poem of his time has yet come to band; but the inscriptions show a fair know. ledge of Sanskrit literature. Compositions in Telugu were also not neglected.