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Science is represented by Bhāsvatī, a manual of rules for determining the position of the heavenly bodies, according to Sürya-siddhānta. The work was composed in Çaka 1021 (A.D. 1099–1100) by Satānanda, son of Çaŋkara and Sarasvati. He was of Purusõttama (i.e. Puri), and according to the commentators he based his calculations on the meridian of this town.

The extremely long rule of Coragaŋga (72nd year) is unprecedented in the annals of Orissa, and, I suppose, stands unique in Indian history too. Presumably he was over ninety at the time of his death.

Traces of his name may still be found in Churaŋga-sāhi, a quarter in Puri town; in Churaŋga pokhri, a tank about six miles S. W. of Cuttack town; in Sāranga-garh, a fort, the remains of which are still visible on the Madras Trunk Road close to Bārang Railway Station ; and in the temple of Gaŋgöçvara, town Jājapura, District Cuttack.

II. Kāmārņava VII.

[1069 Çaka — 1078 Çaka. ]
The following inscriptions of his time are known :-

MATERIALS.

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T.

sarambulu 3 çrāhi Uttarāyana-san-
kr[a]řtti, oro Çaka 1070, year 3,

Uttarāyaṇa saņkrānti. 5

Çak-ābdambulu 107[1] Grima[d-A]n- Ep. Rep., No. 383, of Verified.
T.

anta[varma]. Madhu-kāmsārņa]va Crīkūrmam,
dēvara pravarddhamāna-vijaya-rājya-
samvatsara[m]bu(*la) 4 çrāhi Karka-
ța-[san]krām(ti]yun-Adi-vāramuna,
or Çaka 1071, year 4, Karkataka saŋ.
krānti, Sunday 26th June, A.D.

1149. 6 - Çak-ābdambulu 1074 nēmda Çrimad. Ep. Rep., Nos. 384 Unverifiable.

Anantava[rma]-dēvara pravarddha- and 385, of Crīkūr-
māna - vijaya-rājya-samvatsarambula
7 çrāhi Vişubha-saħkrānti, or Çaka

1074, year 7, Vişabha saņkrānti.
7 Çak-abdambulo 107+(? 6) nēmdu Çri- Ep. Rep., No. 382, of Ditto.
T. mad-Anamttava[r]mma-dēvara pra. Crikūrmam.

varddbamä[na] -vijaya-rājya-samvat-
sa(*ra) 9 çrābi Vişama-samkrārti, or

Çaka 1076, year 9, Vişava saņkrānti.
8 Çaka-varuşaṁbulu 1077 nēņți Crimad. Ep. Rep., No. 270, of Ditto.
T. Anantavarmma-dēvara pravarddha- Mukhalingam, .

māna-vijaya-rājya-samvatsa(*ra).1[0]
çrāhi Uttarāyaṇa-(samkrām]tti, or
(aka 1077, year 10, Uttarāyaṇa-
saņkrānti.

mam.

3rd year

...

1077

First year.

From the inscriptions we thus get-
Caka

1070
1071

4th
1074

7th 1076

9th

= 10th
..
Çaka 1068 = lst year, or if like anka year, then

1069 = 2nd aŋka, or 1st year. This latter seems more probable, as Coraganga's inscriptions exist up to Çaka 1069, 73rd year (No. 182 of Mukhalingam). The copperplates give 1064 Çaka as the year of his abhişēka. Does this mean that in that year he was formally put in charge, Coțaganga being too infirm from age ?

As no inscriptions of the succeeding king have yet been found, the

Last year.

last year of this king cannot be positively

ascertained. Taking ten to be his total year according to Puri and Këndupātņā copperplates, and with 1069 Çaka as his first year, the last year would be 1078 Çaka. This agrees with the calculations of the subsequent reigns. The Puri and Köndupātnā copperplates call him Kāmārnava

Dāva; while in one stone inscription of His titles,

Crikūrmam he is called AnantavarmaMadhu-Kāmārņava Dāva (No. 383), and in the other stone inscription he is called simply Anantavarmma Děva. In No. 178, Çaka 1070 is said to be the 3rd regnal year of one Jațēçvara Dēva. Is this another name of Kāmārņava, or is it the name of another prince who had possibly revolted ? Kāmārņava was the son of Côraganga by the queen Kastūrikā

modini. Apparently he succeeded Cõra. His relationships.

ganga as his eldest son.

III. Rāghava,

[ Çaka 1078 – Çaka 1092.] No inscriptions of this king is known. From calculations of the

succeeding king Rājarāja II, his last year First and last year.

would be 1092 Çaka. According to Puri and Kēndupātnā copperplates he ruled fifteen years. Calculating backwards from 1092, his first year falls in 1078, the last year of Kāmárpava. Hence these dates may be prima facie accepted. He was son of Coşagaŋga by another queen, Indirā, a princess of

the Ravi-kula. Apparently Kāmārnava His relationships.

Dēva had died childless.

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IV. Rājarāja II.
[ Çaka 1092

Çaka 1112.]
The following inscriptions of his time are known:

MATERIALS.

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1 T.

J. II, 15

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2 T.

3 T.

3 çrābi Dakşiņāyana-samkrāmtti, or Çaka 1093, 3rd year, Dakşiņāyanasaņkrānti. Çaka-varşambulu 109[7] [nēņți] Çri. Ep. Rep., No. 242, of Verified. mad- Anantavarmma-dēvara pra- Makhalingam. varddhamāna-vijaya-rājya-samvat. Bara (year omitted] çrāhi Karkatakakṛṣṇa 5 yu Guru-vāramuna, or Çaka 1097, Karkataka Kr. 5, Thursday

= 10th July, A.D. 1175(Purạimānta).
Çaka-varşambulu 1109 gu[nēmdu] Çri- Ep. Rep., No. 180, of Irregular.
mad- Anam[ta]varmma.dēvara pra- Mukhalingam.
varddbamāna vijaya-rājya-samvatsa
(*ra) 22 gu çrāhi Uttarāyaṇa-samt-
tiya Guru.vāramuna, or Çaka 1109,
22nd year, Uttarāyaṇa-saņkrānti,

Thursday.
Çaka-varşambula 1110 gunēmțți Çri- Ep. Rep., No. 265, of Ditto.
mad-Anamttavarmma-dēvara

pra- Dukhaliŋgam.
vard dhamāna-vijaya-rājya-samvat-
sarambula 23 çrāhi Uttarāyaṇa-sam-
kranttiyu Garu-vāramuna, or Çaka
1110, 23rd year, Uttarāyaṇa saņkrān-
ti, Thursday ; [if a Sāyana saņkrānti,
then it fell on 15th November, A.D.
1188, which was a Thursday].

4 T.

2nd year

First year.

Thus from the inscriptions, we get :-
Çaka

1093 3rd (aşka) or
1109 = 22nd

18th
1110
= 23rd

19th
:: Çaka 1092

= first year. From the succeeding king's calculations Rāja-rāja's last year would

be Çaka 1112. In the Puri and Kēndupātnā Last year.

copperplates he is credited with a rule of 25 years; which, if taken as aŋka, would agree, 25th aŋka being equal to 21st year. The inscriptions show that the regnal years had become full aŋkas in his time.

In the stone inscriptions of Mukhalingam only the title Anantavarmma Dēvu is mentioned. He was son of Coragaŋga by another princess Candralekhā (copper

plates, Puri and Kandupātnā). This relaRelationships,

tionship is corroborated by the Möghöçvara inscription at Bhuvanēçvara. [Its latest readings are by Babu N. N. Vasu, Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. LXVI, 1897, pp. 11-24; and by Professor Kielhorn, Ep. Indica, Vol. VI, pp. 198-203]. According to this inscription Rājarāja married Suramā, a sister of Svapnēçvara Dēva, the erector of the Möghöçvara temple (line 10); and in his old age installed in the government his younger brother Aniyanka Bhima (1. 11).

In " the copperplate inscription of Nșsimha Dāva II,” plate leaf III, reverse, 1. 13, verse 56, the words "pragalbha-vayasi” have been read (transl. “ in his early youth "). But from the Mēghēçvara inscription, Rājarāja appears to have come to the throne at least in his middle age. I would therefore prefer to read "pragalbha-vacasi.” [See my reading, J.A.S.B., 1895, p. 141, note (1)].

V. Aniyanka Bhima or Anaŋga Bhima Dāva II.

[Çaka 1112 Çaka 1120.] Only two inscriptions of this king's time have been found up to date :

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2

Çrimad-Aniŋka-Bhima-dēvasya pra- Inscription No. 1 on Verified, .
varddhamāna-samrājyē cat usitāte the south jamb of
tamē aşkē Makara-svēkādaçisi) Sa- the porch of the
kra-vārē, or 4th year, Makara Ça. 11, great Temple of
Friday = 15th January, A.D. 1193. Krttiväsa at Bhu.

vanēgvara, lines

2.4.
Çrimad-Aniyaŋka-Bhima-dēvasya pra- Ditto, inscription Unverifi.
varddhamāna Paraşõttama sõmbhā. No. 2, lines 1-4. able.
ykē (?) catastinattamē aŋkē, or 4th See my note in
anka.

Proc. A 8. Soc.
Beng., June and

July, 1892.
Between Çaka 1115-1120, or A.D. Mēghēçvara inscrip-
1193-4-1198-9.

tion.

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A.D. 1193 or Çaka 1114 = 4th aŋka or 3rd year.

1112 = 2nd aŋka or 1st year.

First year.

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From the calculated initial year of the next king, this king's last

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