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Science is represented by Bhasvati, a manual of rules for determining the position of the heavenly bodies, according to Surya-siddhānta. The work was composed in Çaka 1021 (A.D. 1099–1100) by Satānanda, son of Çankara and Sarasvati. He was of Purusottama (i.e. Puri), and according to the commentators he based his calculations on the meridian of this town.
The extremely long rule of Cōraganga (72nd year) is unprecedented in the annals of Orissa, and, I suppose, stands unique in Indian history too. Presumably he was over ninety at the time of his death.
Traces of his name may still be found in Churṛanga-sahi, a quarter in Puri town; in Churanga pōkhri, a tank about six miles S. W. of Cuttack town; in Sāranga-garh, a fort, the remains of which are still visible on the Madras Trunk Road close to Barang Railway Station ; and in the temple of Gangēçvara, town Jajapura, District Cuttack.
[1069 Çaka - 1078 Çaka. ]
The following inscriptions of his time are known :
sarambulu 3 çrāhi Uttarayana-sam-
Çak-abdambulu 107 Çrima[d-A]n- | Ep. Rep., No. 383, of Verified.
anta[varma]- Madhu - kām[ārņa]va -
6 Çak-abdambulu 1074 nēmḍu CrimadAnaṁtava[rma]-dēvara pravarddhamāna - vijaya-rajya-samvatsaraṁbulu 7 çrāhi Viṣubha-samkrāmti, or Çaka 1074, year 7, Viṣubha sankranti.
Ep. Rep., Nos. 384 Unverifiable. and 385, of Çrikūr
Çak-abdambulu 107+(? 6) nēmḍu Cri- Ep. Rep., No. 382, of
sa(*ra) 9 çrāhi Viṣuma-saṁkrāṁti, or
Çaka 1076, year 9, Vișuva sakrānti.
Çaka-varuṣambulu 1077 nēņți Ģrimad- Ep. Rep., No. 270, of
çrahi Uttarāyaṇa-[saṁkrāṁ]tti, or
.. Çaka 1068 = 1st year, or if like aŋka year, then
This latter seems more probable, as Coraganga's inscriptions exist up to Çaka 1069, 73rd year (No. 182 of Mukhalingam). The copperplates give 1064 Çaka as the year of his abhişēka. Does this mean that in that year he was formally put in charge, Cōraganga being too infirm from age?
As no inscriptions of the succeeding king have yet been found, the
last year of this king cannot be positively ascertained. Taking ten to be his total
year according to Puri and Kōndupāṭņā copperplates, and with 1069 Çaka as his first year, the last year would be 1078 Çaka. This agrees with the calculations of the subsequent reigns.
The Puri and Kōndupāṭnā copperplates call him Kāmārṇava Dēva; while in one stone inscription of His titles. Çrikurmam he is called AnantavarmaMadhu-Kāmārṇava Deva (No. 383), and in the other stone inscription he is called simply Anantavarmma Deva. In No. 178, Çaka 1070 is said to be the 3rd regnal year of one Jaṭēçvara Dēva. Is this another name of Kāmārņava, or is it the name of another prince who had possibly revolted ?
Kāmārṇava was the son of Coraganga by the queen Kastūrikāmodini. Apparently he succeeded Cora. ganga as his eldest son.
[ Çaka 1078 - Çaka 1092. ]
No inscriptions of this king is known. From calculations of the
First and last year.
succeeding king Rājarāja II, his last year would be 1092 Çaka. According to Puri and Kēndupāṭnā copperplates he ruled fifteen years. Calculating backwards from 1092, his first year falls in 1078, the last year of Kāmārpava. Hence these dates may be prima facie accepted.
He was son of Cōṛaganga by another queen, Indirā, a princess of the Ravi-kula. Apparently Kāmārṇava Deva had died childless.
IV. Rājarāja II.
[ Çaka 1092 Çaka 1112.]
The following inscriptions of his time are known:
Ep. Rep., No. 242, of Verified.
3 çrāhi Dakṣiņāyana-saṁkrāṁtti, or Çaka 1093, 3rd year, Dakṣiņāyanasaņkrānti. Çaka-varşambulu 109 [nēņti] Crimad-Ana ntavarmma-dēvara pravarddhamāna-vijaya-rājya-s a ṁvatsara [year omitted] çrahi Karkaṭakakṛṣṇa 5 yu Guru-vāramuna, or Çaka 1097, Karkataka Kr. 5, Thursday = 10th July, A.D. 1175 (Pūrṇimānta). Çaka-varşambulu 1109 gu[nēṁḍu] Çri- Ep. Rep., No. 180, of Irregular.
Çaka-varṣambulu 1110 gunēmțți Ori- Ep. Rep., No. 265, of
mad-Anaṁttavarmma-dē vara pra
Thus from the inscriptions, we get:
3rd (anka) or
1110 = 23rd
1092 = first year.
From the succeeding king's calculations Raja-raja's last year would be Çaka 1112. In the Puri and Kendupăṭnā copperplates he is credited with a rule of 25 years; which, if taken as anka, would agree, 25th aŋka being equal to 21st year. The inscriptions show that the regnal years had become full aŋkas in his time.
In the stone inscriptions of Mukhalingam only the title Anantavarmma Dēva is mentioned.
He was son of Cōraganga by another princess Candralekha (copper
plates, Puri and Kēndupāṭnā). This relationship is corroborated by the Megheç
vara inscription at Bhuvaneçvara. [Its latest readings are by Babu N. N. Vasu, Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. LXVI, 1897, pp. 11-24; and by Professor Kielhorn, Ep. Indica, Vol. VI, pp. 198-203]. According to this inscription Rājarāja married Surama, a sister of Svapneçvara Dēva, the erector of the Meghēçvara temple (line 10); and in his old age installed in the government his younger brother Aniyanka Bhima (1. 11).
In "the copperplate inscription of Nrsimha Deva II," plate leaf III, reverse, 1. 13, verse 56, the words "pragalbha-vayasi" have been read (transl. "in his early youth "). But from the Mēghēçvara inscription, Rājarāja appears to have come to the throne at least in his middle age. I would therefore prefer to read “pragalbha-vacasi." [See my reading, J.A.S.B., 1895, p. 141, note (1)].
V. Aniyaŋka Bhima or Anaŋga Bhima Dēva II.
Only two inscriptions of this king's time have been found up to date :
Inscription No. 1 on Verified,
Between Çaka 1115-1120, or A.D. Mēghēçvara inscrip-
A.D. 1193 or Çaka 1114 = 4th aŋka or 3rd year.
1112 = 2nd aŋka or 1st year.
From the calculated initial year of the next king, this king's last