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No regnal years being available, the year of reign has been deduced
First and last years.
from the figure given in Puri and Kōndupāṭnā Plates, viz., 33, which as aŋka is equal to 24th year. See remarks under Rājarāja III [supra p. 117]. The king was son of Ananga-Bhima Deva by his wife Kastūrā Dēvi. In Ep. Rep., No. 307, he is also described as born of the king Anaŋga-Bhima.
The name is generally written as Narasimha.
The copperplates speak of the king's invasion of Rāṛhā and Varēndra and the defeat of Yavanas there. This fight with Bengal Mahomedans is corroborated by Tabakat-i-Nāşiri. I quote the passages in full, as being
J. I. 16
the statements of a contemporary, and, in one instance, of an eyewitness:
"In the year 641 H., the Rãe of Jāj-nagar commenced molesting "the Lakhanawați territory; and in the month of Shawwal, 641 H. “Malik Tughril-i-Tughān Khan marched towards the Jāj-nagar coun"try, and this servant of the State [Minhaj-i-Sarāj, Jūrjāni] accom'panied him on that holy expedition. On reaching Katāsin, which was "the boundary of Jaj-nagar [on the side of Lakhaṇawați], on Saturday "the 6th of the month of Zi-ka'dah 641 H., Malik Tughril-i-Tughān "Khan made his troops mount, and an engagement commenced. The "holy-warriors of Islam passed over two ditches, and the Hindū infidels "took to flight. So far as they continued in the author's sight, except "the fodder which was before their elephants, nothing fell into the "hands of the footmen of the army of the Islām, and moreover, Malik "Tughril-i-Tughan Khan's commands were that no one should molest "the elephants, and for this reason the fierce fire of battle subsided.”
"When the engagement had been kept up until midday the foot"men of the Musalman army-everyone of them-returned [to the camp ?] to eat their food, and the Hindus, in another direction stole "through the cane Jangal, and took five elephants; and about two "hundred foot and fifty horsemen came upon the rear of a portion of "the Musalman army. The Muḥammadans sustained an overthrow, "and a great number of these holy warriors attained martyrdom; and "Malik Tughril-i-Tughan Khan retired from that place without having "effected his object, and returned to Lakhanawati." (p. 738).
"In the same year likewise [642 H.], the Rae of Jāj-nagar, in order to avenge the plundering of Katāsin, which had taken place the preceding year, as has been already recorded, having turned his face towards Lakhanawați territory, on Tuesday, the 13th of the month of Shawwal, 642 H., the army of infidels of Jāj-nagar, consisting of elephants, and pāyiks [foot-men] in great numbers, arrived opposite Lakbaṇawaṭī. Malik Tughril-i-Tughān Khān came out of the city to confront them. The infidel host, on coming beyond the frontier of the Jāj-nagar territory, first took Lakhan-or; and Fakhr-ul-Mulk, Karim-ud-din, Lāghri, who was the feudatory of Lakhan-or, with a body of Musalmāns, they made martyrs of, and after that, appeared before the gate of Lakhaṇawaţi. The second day after that, swift messengers arrived from above [the Do-abah and Awadh, &c.], and gave information respecting the army of Islām that it was near at hand. Panic now took possession of the infidels, and they decamped." (pp. 739-40).
This inroad up to Lakhanawati is also indicated in the following:"The leader of the forces of Jāj-nagar was a person, by name,
Saban-tar[Sawantara ?], the son-in-law of the Rae, who during the time of Malik 'Izz-ud-din Tughril-i-Tughan Khan, had advanced to the bank of the river of Lakhanawați, and having shown the greatest audacity, had driven the Musalman forces as far as the gate [of the city] of Lakhaṇawați." (pp. 762-3).
"In the year 642 H., the infidels of Jaj-nagar appeared before the gate of Lakhanawați." (p. 665).
Other fights with a succeeding Bengal ruler also took place during this king's time.
"After he " [Malik Ikhtiyar-ud-din Yüz-bak-i-Tughril Khan]" went to that part, and brought that country" [Lakhanawati] "under his jurisdiction, hostility arose between him and the Rãe of Jaj-nagar. The leader of the forces of Jāj-nagar was a person, by name, Saban-tar [see above]. In Malik Tughril Khân-i-Yuz-bak's time, judging from the past, he [the Jaj-nagar leader] manifested great boldness, and fought, and was defeated. Again, another time, Malik Tughril Khan-iYuz-bak fought an engagement with the Rae of Jaj-nagar, and again * came out victorious.
"On a third occasion, Malik Yüz-bak sustained a slight reverse, and a white elephant than which there was no other more valuable in that part, and which was ruttish, got out of his hands in the field of battle, and fell into the hands of the infidels of Jāj-nagar.
"The following year, however, Malik Yüz-bak asked assistance from the court of Delhi, and then marched an army from Lakhaṇawaţi into the territory of Umurdan, and unexpectedly reached the Rae's capital, which city they style Umurdan. The Rae of that place retired Rãe before Malik Yüz-bak, and the whole of the Rae's family, dependants, and followers, and his wealth, and elephants, fell into the hands of the Musalman forces." (p. 763).
Minhaj-i-Sarāj gives the dates of the fights with Malik Tughril-iTughan Khan (A.H. 641-2); but gives no dates of the fights with Malik Tughril Khān-i-Yūz-bak. The latter could not have got Bengal before Malik Tamur Khān-i-ķi-rān who died on "Friday, the end of the month of Shawwal," A.H. 644, or A.D. 1247, March (p. 741); and he must have ceased to rule before the capture of Lakhanawați by Malik Tāj-ud-din Arsalān Khāu Sanjar-i-chast, in 657 A.H. or A.D., 1259, when Malik 'Izz-ud-din Balban-i-Yuz-baki is said to have been the feudatory in charge of Lakhaṇawați (pp. 769-70).
In J.A.S.B., LXV, 1896, pp. 232-4, Babu N. N. Vasu has argued that the "Saban-tar" who led the forces of Jaj-nagar was probably Narasimha Dēva I, and "that Minhaj, by mistake has described the son to be the son-in-law." Now that the fights have been in this
article shewn to have taken place in the time of Nrsimha Dēva himself he will not, I trust, be identified with his son-in-law, the sẵtrā (lit. Samanta-Rāya).
Nrsimha Dēva I will be remembered, however, by posterity, as the king under whose orders the great temple of Kanarka was built. All the copperplates agree in ascribing to him the erection of the sun Temple at Kōṇākōņa.
In Çrikürmam temple no inscription of the king himself has been found. No. 307 records a grant by one Sahasa-malla during this king's reign. In No. 352 is recorded a grant by one Vijayaditya whose father Rājarāja was a minister (mamtri) of this king, Vira Nrsimha I; [see Dr. Hultzsch, Ep. Ind., Vol. V., p. 33].
Dr. R. G. Bhaṇḍārkar has discovered an Alaŋkāra work, Ēkāvali, whose author Vidyadhara flourished in the court of a Narasimha Deva, king of Utkala and Kalinga, (Narasimha II., according to Dr. Bhaṇḍārkar), [Report on Sanskrit MSS., 1887-91, pp. LXV-LXIX]. This king I am inclined to identify with Nrsimha Deva I, from the mention in the poem of the poet Harihara and his patron king Arjuna of Malwa ❤ (whose latest known date is 9th September, A.D. 1215), and from Vidyadhara's description of the Utkala king as having humbled the pride of Hammira, this being a title of the early Sultans of Delhi. [See Thomas, Chron. Path. kings, pp. 15, 16, 20, 50, 70, 71, 75, 90, 91, 103, 108, 119, 123, 127, 137; Ind. Ant., Vol. XX., p. 208 et seq.; J.A.S.B., Vol. XLIII, p. 108].
[Since writing this, the Ēkāvali has been printed in the Bombay Sanskrit Series under the editorship of Mr. K. P. Trivedi ; and thanks to Dr. Bhaṇḍārkar I have just got a copy of it. In the introductory note (pp. xxxiii-xxxvii), Dr. Bhaṇḍārkar is still inclined to take the king to be Narasimha Dēva II, chiefly from the fact that he is described in the Puri copperplates as "kavi-priyaḥ" (A. IV. 42), and "kavi-kumuda-candro" (A. V. 3). This identification, however, does not explain the specific mention of the fights with "Hammira, "Yavana" and "Çaka" kings in Bengal, (cf. pp. 176, 177, 202, 203, 257, 260, 326). Nrsimha Dēva II has nowhere been credited with any invasion of Bengal or with any war against the Mahomedans. For a fuller discussion, see Appendix II.]
Ēķāvali is fortunate enough to have got a commentary named Taraļā from the great commentator Mallinātha. It has been several times quoted in the citra-mimāmsā and kuvalayananda of Appaya Dikgita
IX. Bhānu Dēva I.
[Çaka 1186 Çaka 1200-1].
The following two inscriptions of this king's time are known:
Regnal years wanting, the year of the Kendupāṭnā copperplates has been accepted, viz., 18 ankas, equal to First and Last year. fifteenth year. The last year of this king is ascertained from the initial year of his successor, as 1200-1 Çaka. Bhānu Dēva was son of Nrsimha Dēva I by Sita Dēvi, daughter of He is also called Vira-Bhānu
In the copperplates he is said to have given one hundred grants of lands with houses and gardens to good Crōtriya Brāhmaṇas, written on copperplates.
X. Nrsimha Dēva II,
[Çaka 1200-1 Çaka 1227-28].
A considerable number of inscriptions of this king's time has been brought to light :
Çaka-varuṣambulu 1201 gunēmți Pra- Ep. Rep., No. 356, of Verified.
tāpa-Vira - Ori-Narasimhya - dēvaru