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III.- TIRHUT.

There are few regions of India possessing an ancient civilization about which we have less definite historic information than the region north of the Ganges variously known as Videha, Tirabhukti, or (from its capital) Mithilā.

Neither the work of Prinsep, nor its excellent successor, that of Miss C. M. Duff, attempts a 'Dynastic list' for this country. Chronological indications are thus peculiarly valuable. There would seem to have been a certain degree of literary intercourse between Nepal and Tirhut, the frontier state on the direct route to the plains. Accord. ingly a large number of the MSS. in the present Catalogue are written by Tirhuti scribes in their characteristic (Maithili) script and dated mostly in the common era of the country, that of Lakşmaņa Sena.

On pp. 131-2 we find a case where a MS. is by a Tirhuti scribe domiciled in Nepal. For it will be observed that not only are the writing and the era those of Mithila, but the scribe goes out of his way to describe Lalita-pattan ("Patan '); where the MS. was copied, as situated in the kingdom of Nepal.'

A notice of far greater interest and importance is preserved through a case of intercourse in the opposite direction, where a Nepalese scribe was living in Tirhut. This is the case of the MS. of part of the Rāmāyaṇa, No. 1079, briefly noticed at p. 34 of the Catalogue. The colophon in question occurs at the end of the Kişkindyakāņda at ff. 375-6. As it is not given in the Catalogue, I here transcribe it from my own notes: Samvat 1076 (900) aşādha badi 4 mahārājadhi. rāja punyāvaloka-somavamsodbhava-gaudadhvaja-śrīmad-Găngeya devabhujyamāna-Tīrabhaktau kalyānavijarājye Nepāladeśiya-sri bhäñcu śālikaśri Anandasya pāțakāvasthita (kāyastha) pandita śrī śrī Kurasyātmajaśrí. Gopatinālekhīdam. Interpreting this according to the somewhat free-and-easy' Sanskrit used by scribes, I understand it to mean that in Samvat 1076 Gopati, son of Srīkura, (Kāyastha) paņdit belonging to the country of Nepal and living in Ananda's pāțaka 2 belonging to Bhāncu śāli (?), copied this during a victorious reign in T'irhut, when it was ruled by Gāngeyadeva, the great king, beholder of holiness, sprung from the lunar race and banner of Gauda. The writing of the MS. is the archaic · Lantsa’ of Nepal, so that we may quite well

1 Added in a different hand.

% Of. Ind. Ant. XVIII. 135, where pitaka is interpreted to mean the sabdivi. sion of a village ; hence bhāñcu salika may well contain the name of the larger village or district.

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refer the Samvat to the Vikrama era. If this be granted, it must surely follow that we may identify the king with Gārgeya-deva, Kalacuri of Cedi, likewise of lunar lineage,? who was thus reigning in A.D. 1019, or some 11 years before Alberuni & mentions him as ruling in Dahāla, in 1030. Gāngeyadeva's influence has not been hitherto traced so far east as Tirhut; but it is noteworthy that his son also, Karņadeva, claimed influence in Gauda,8 still further east.

Nothing appears to be known of the rulers of Tirhut from this time to the 14th century, when the Thākur dynasty appeared. A full genealogical table of this family was given by Dr. Grierson in Ind. Antiquary XIV, p. 196, and this was supplemented by him with further notes in the same journal in March 1899 (XXVIII, p. 57). Our Catalogue gives (p. 63) a date, L.S. 392,4 for one of the later kings, Kamsanārāyaṇa, also called Lakşminätha, which is the more acceptable as I have elsewhere shown, that the native chronology for this dynasty is incorrect. In the same year, Lakşmaņa Samvat 392, was copied the MS. described at Cat., p. 122, , which gives a further confirmation of the succession of this dynasty, calling it the Srotriya (brahmanical) vamsa. At p. 65 we meet with an interesting confirmation of the correctness of the details given in Dr. Grierson's table, as we there find a MS. by order of a non-reigning prince, viz., Gadādharadeva (mahārajādhiräjavara kumāra) in L.S. 372 (A.D. 1490), a date which fits very well with that last mentioned.

If Rāmasimha, the king of Mithila mentioned at p. 23 med., be the same as Rāmabhadra, then the composition of Srikara's commentary on the Amarakośa there described falls at the end of the 15th century.

The prince Indusena, or Indrasena, the author of the work described at p. 265, would seem from his biruļa Rupanārāyaṇa to have belonged to this family.

I subjoin a short table of this dynasty (Table III).

GORAKHPUR-C(H)AMPĀRAN. In this region, that is, in the country south of Nepal on both sides of the Gaņdak, there reigned during the 15th century a dynasty, hitherto not noticed by European writers, but

1 Ep. Ind. II. 9,11.

% India (tr.) 1. 202; Gāngeya is also known from coins, some of them found as far north as Gorakhpur : Rapson, Indian Coins (Grundriss, II 3B), p. 33; V. A. Smith, J. A. S. B., LXVI. i. 306.

B Ind. Aut. XVIII. 217, moreover Karna's son made one expedition to Campāranya. Ep. Ind. loc.cit.

4 392 current. The date works out, as Dr. Kielhorn kindly informs me, to Wednesday 18th December, 1510.

BJ. R.A. S. 1898, p. 233. Dr. Eggeling, Cat. I. O., p 875, seems to accept it somewhat too readily.

Kumāra Gadādhara Sigha in that table.

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apparently connected with that last mentioned. Several of the rulers aro mentioned in colophons of the present catalogue, and one of these must be in all probability identified with the issue of a series of coins, unpublished as yet and also undated, but apparently belonging to this century.

The first sovereign mentioned is Pţthyisihadeva in whose reign in (Vikrama] Samvat 1492 (A.D. 1434-5) at Campakāranyanagara was copied MS. No. 1508 () at p. 61.

His successor was probably, as we shall presently see, Saktisimha.

Of the next king, Madana or Madanasimhadeva, we have three mentions in these MSS. At p. 51.1-3 we find him mentioned as reigning in Vikrama-Samvat 1511 (A.D. 1453-4) at Campakāraṇyanagara. His epithets are interesting. The first, viprarāja, seems to point to his belonging to the same śrotriya vamsa which reigned in (Eastern) Tirbut and so does the biruda ending in nārāyana which all the members of that dynasty assumed. The pandit is uncertain about the reading daityanārāyaṇa, but I find from my own notes on the same MS. that I read the compound thus. I should propose to interpret it like daityanisūdana and daityāri (botli epithets of Vişnu) by reference to the Vaişpava faith of the king. This would accord well with the legend of a set of coins first identified by Dr. Hoey with this same region and at present in the British Museum. This legend is itfar. TTT que ha and on the reverse a quite 1. The lettering of the coins may well belong to the 15th cevtury and I am glad to have the authority of my friend Mr. Rapson, to whom I am indebted for my knowledge of the coins, that their general style and workmanship is referable to the same period.

At p. 29 (MS. 1001 57) we. find another MS. of the same reign written at Goraksa pura in L.S. 339 (1457 A.D.) It is interesting to note that the era used is that of Lakşmaņa Sena, as it confirms the accuracy

of the Vikrama date, and also forms the first instance hitherto noted of the employment of the era west of the Gandak, i.e., beyond the limits of Bengal. "Lastly, Madana appears as a royal author giving his name to the Madana-ratnapradipa (p. 223). This work is said in the colophon to have been composed (virgcita) by the 'king Madanaşimhadeva, who was the son of king Saktisimha (see above], adorned with many birudas. At the beginning of the text, however, the work is only said to be promulgated (prakāsyate) by Madana' and at the end we are told that he got the work done (kārita :-doubtless a common case with Indian royal authors !) by one Yiśvanātha living' at 'Kāśi-tirtha,! probably Benares.

1 Does the prefix Sri imply the abovementioned town of Campakāranya, ratherthan the mere region so-called ?

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TABLE I.

KINGS OF NEPAL PROPER FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE BRA OF NEPAL TO THE DIVISION OF THE KINGDOM

(A.D. 879-1474).
Abbreviations : 'V, VI, V%, V8,' represent the newly-discovered Vamśávali and its three divisions ; 'Cat. the catalogue of the
Darbar Library by Pandit Haraprasād Sāstri; 'Camb. Cat.' my own catalogue of Baddhist Skt. MSS. at Cambridge. 'K' and 'H. J.,
after dates represent respectively the kind assistance of my friends, Proff. Kielhora and Jacobi, in verification. MSS. marked 'Camb.
Or.' are those recently acquired by me in Nepal ; expd.-expired (gata) year expressed in the Ms., [expd.] the same not expressed
but calculated.

Dates in italic figures are derived from the chronicle (V.) only.

DATES WITH MONTHS.

References, to Reign_acc.
MSS., etc.

to V.

Nepal era, when not otherwise

specified.

Equivalent

A.D.

::

:::

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Răghavadeva

46, 6 mo. Traditional founder of Nepal era (20th Jayadeva

10.

October, 879).
Vikramadeva

8, 9 mo.
Narendradeya

1,6 mo.
Guņakāmadeva I.

65, 5 mo.
Udayadeva

5, 5 mo.
Nirbhaya
} 128, Phālguna 1008

Camb. Add. 866 | Not named.
Radra

When Camb. Add. 2191
Bhoja

was copied

(date gone), Bhoja was ruling alone. Rudra

135, Caitra 1015

1643

These joint regencies not referred to
Lakşmikāmadeva I.

in V.
Lakşmikāmadeva I. (sole 159, (expd.] Vais 1039

1683 21 'Friday, 30th March 1039' (Kielhorn) 1. ruler.)

i Communicated by letter. Dr. Kielhorn's previous working (I. Ant. XVII. 252) of the date as a current year rested on a misprint in the Nagari Text (not, however, in the Arabic numerals) of my Cambridge Cat., p. 172.

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Pradyumna-kāmadeva.
Nāgārjuna

Camb. Add. 1684 Name faded

2197

in V.
2.

Probably (1) Wed., 25 Jan. 1066 (K.).

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This date is confirmed by my own note

made from the MS.
The Hodgson Collection of the Society.

Cf. Rāj. Mitra, Astas. Pref. p. xxi.,

note, and Foucher, Iconographie. p. 27.
J.A.S.B. lxii. i. 249. Vallée-Poussin,

Bouddhisme p. 388. The date does

not work out, as Dr. Jacobi informs me.
A copied date of somewhat uncertain

interpretation, J. R. A. 8., 1891, p. 687.
'Friday, 10th May, 1090'(K). The date

is omitted in the Cat., p. 30; but was
verified by myself.

A.S.B. (coll. of

1893)

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14

years
(about
1084-1098)

210 [expd.] Jyeştba 1090, May Kathmandu No.

1002.
213 expd. Caitra 1093

Camb. Add. 2197
219 current

1098

Vl fol. 24 a

Harşadeva

3

Wording of date. quoted above.

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