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a tradition of this conquest was heard by the Portuguese Fernão Nuniz who, in his chronicles written probably in A.D. 1535-7, thus says:– “By his death one called Bucarão inherited this kingdom, and he conquered many lands which at the time of the destruction of that kingdom remained rebellious, and by him they were taken and turned to his power and lordship; and he took the kingdom of Orya, which is very great; it touches on Bemgalla.” [Sewell's Vijayanagara, p. 300]. to The great event of Bhānu Dāva's reign was the invasion of Jājnagar by the Delhi Sultân Firüz Shāh. A lengthy description of this invasion will be found in Tärikh-i-Firüz-Shahi, of Shams-i-Sirāj-‘Afif, [Elliot, III, 312-5]. An abstract of it is given in Major Raverty's translation of Tabākāt-i-Nāsiri, note 4 to p. 587 (below pp. 591-2). This is quoted here to economise space:— “On his reaching Jün-pār the rains again set in [760 Hj.” (? 761 H.), “and he stayed there during the rainy season, and in Zi-Hijjah of that year set out by way of Bihār towards Jāj-nagar, which was at the extremity of the territory of Gadhah-Katankah. When the Sultân reached Karah, Malik Kutb-ud-din, brother of Zaffir Rhān was left behind with the troops and the heavy equipage, and he advanced with celerify through Bihār towards Jāj-nāgar.... Having passed the river Mahā-madri, Mahān-dari, or Mahān-adri [the river which falls into the Son doubtless is meant] he reached the city or town of Banārsi [Shams-i-Sarāj and Alfi have Banāras and Budā’-lini Bārāni] which is ” [sic was] “the capital and abode of the Rāe of Jāj-nagar [Shams-i-Sarājhas Rāe of Jājnagar-üdisah]. The Räefled towards Taling [Talingānah], and the Sultân not pursuing him [Firishtah says pursuing], proceeded to hunt elephants in the vicinity [Shams-i-Sarājsays the Sultân remained some time at Banāras, and the Räe took shelter in one of the islands of the, or on a, river]; during which time the Räe despatched emissaries and sought for peace, sending at the same time three elephants, besides rarities and precious things [Shams-i-Sarāj says after his return from Padmäwatij. Hunting as he went along, the Sultān reached the territory of Räe Bhānu Diw [Shams-i-Sarāj, Bir Bhàn Diw— Alfi, Pir Mähi Diw—perhaps Bir Māhī] who sent him some elephants He then returned from thence with the object of hunting, came to Padmâwati, South Bihār probably, which is a part abounding with elephants, captured thirty-three and killed two which could not be secured.... From Padmäwati Sultân Firüz Shāh returned to Karah in Rajab

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The following inscriptions of this king's time are known :

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MATERIALS.–Continued. No. L Date-extracts. References. REMARKS. 3A,IM- wo guage. Candra-vārā-manu, or Çaka 1324, Pausa Pürnimä, Monday = 7th January, A.D. 1403. 8 Qāk-ābdé sada-p+ -āgni-dvijapari-(ti) Ep. Rep., No. 279, of Verified. S. gamité Qaitra-gukla-dagamyārh Gur- | Qrikürmam. vā-ahé . . . . . . . . * ri-Nrsimhya-kšit-indrah, or Çaka 13+6 (? 1346), Caitra Qu. 10, Thursday = 29th March, A. D. 1425. Between A.H. 796-802, or between | Raverty's Tab. Naş., | The first A.D. 1393-1399. footnote 4 to page | r u le r of 587 (below p. 589), the Sharki [for date of the dynasty ruler, see Thomas' of J a un-> Chr. Path, De I h i, pār comp. 320]. pelled Jājn a g a r to pay tribute. 815 A.H. or A.D. 1412. Ditto, ditto (below | Invasion of p. 592). Jāj-mag a r by Bahmani Sul t à n Firüz, 825 A.H. or A.D. 1422. Jarrett's Ain-i-A k - | Inro a d of bari, Vol. II, p 219, the M a l and its note 1'; wah Su lBrigg’s Firishtah, t à n Ho IV, 178; T a b a k. shang into Nas, footnote 4 to Jāj-nagar page 587 (be low a n d his p. 589). capture of its Rāe. First year. From the above inscriptions we get— Qaka 1301-2 = 3rd aljka or 2nd year , 1301 (? 1303-4) = 4th j9 3rd , , 1305-6 = 8th 5 § 6th , , , 1316 (? 1317-8) = 22nd 33 18th , , (1318-9) = 23rd ,, 19th , .*. ,, . 1300 1 e lst year.


The inscription, No. 299, of Çrikürmath is dated Qaka 1324. The

Last date known.

inscription, N9. 279, is unfortunately broken ; but if of Çaka 1346, then it would be the

latest known date of this dynasty and probably of this king. No regnal years being given, this inscription may possibly belong to a successor.

He was son of Bhānu Dāva III through his queen Hirā Dévi of Calukya Kula. His name has been variously written as Vira-Nrsimha-déva, Vira-QriNarasimha Dava, vira-Qri-Nrsimha Déva, and in the copperplates he has been given virudas beginning with “caturdaça-bhuvau-ādhipati.” If this is not an oriental hyperbole, the first king of the Sharki dynasty, Khwājah-i-Jahān, who ruled Jünpür *- from 796 to 802 A.H., is said to have compelled Lakhanawati and Jāj-nagar to pay him tributes. In 815 A.H. Sultân Firüz of the Bahmani dynasty entered Jāj-nagar and carried off a number of elephants. In 825 A.H., Husān-ud-din Hoshang, the second independent king of Mālwah, made an adventurous raid into Jāj-nagar, which is thus described in the Ain-i-Akbari:— * “On one occasion. cunningly disguised as a merchant, he set out for Jāj-nagar. The ruler of that country accompanied by a small retinue visited the caravan. Hoshang took him prisoner and hastened back. While journeying together, Hoshang told him that he had been induced to undertake this expedition in order to procure a supply of elephants, and added that if his people attempted a rescue, the prince's life should pay the penalty. The prince, therefore, sending for a number of valuable elephants, presented them to him and was set at liberty.”

Relationship and titles.

Historical facts.

© IXV. The IDark Period.
[? Çaka 1346 – Qaka 1356-7.]

This period has no inscriptions and is thus shrouded in darkness. According to the Mādalā Pāńji or Chronicles of Jagannātha temple, the last king of Gayga-varivoa was Bhānu Déva (? IV) surnamed Akafā-Abatā, and according to one version Matta. When he died, his minister Kapiländra alias Kapilégvara Déva usurped the throne and founded the Sūryyavariega. His inscriptions show his reign to have begun in Çaka 1356-7 or A.D. 1434-5. [See my article on the Süryya-vanga kings, J.A.S.B., 1900, p. 180 et seq.]

? Bhānu Déva IV.

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Appendix I.
A Genealogical Table of the Eastern Gauja kings,

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2. Dānārnava Gunarnava I Mārasimha

(40 years)

1. Kānīārnava I (36 years)

3. Kâmârnava II (50 years)

4. Ranārnava (5 years)

5. Wajrahasta II 6. Kåmårnava III

Vajrahasta t

(15 years) (19 years)
7. Gunarnava II (Gunamahārmava)
(27 years)
8. Vajrahasta III (omitted in Wiz. plates)
(44 jo. )
... .s | | | Y
Jitäljkuga (omitted in N. plates) (i) 9. Gundama I 10. Kâmârnava IV 11. Vinayāditya
(15 years) (7 years, W.; (25 years, W.; (3 years)
3 years, N.) 34 years, N.)
Kaligalānkuça (omitted in N.)
(12 years) *
12. Vajrahasta IV alias Aniyankabhima
(35 * . (in N. plates)
to | By another wife
Vinaya Mahādāvi = 14, Kāmārnava W 15. Gundama II 16. Madhu-Kāmārnava VI
(Vaidyumba family) || (# year) (3 years) (19 years)

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