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The origin of the Kap section of the Barendra Class of Brahmans of Bengal.By PANDIT YOGEŠACHANDRA SASTRI.

[Read May, 1903.] In the 12th century A.D. during the reign of Ballala Sena the number of the Brahmans who came to Bengal from Kanauj in the time of Adisura became immensely increased. There were 350 Brahmans on the east bank and 750 on the west bank of the river Ganges. The former were designated as Barendras on account of their being the inhabitants of Barendrabhumi, the present Rajshahi division, and the latter were called Rarhis owing to their being the inhabitants of Rarhabhumi, the present Burdwan division and the western part of Murshidabad district.

During this period there were no Brahmans well versed in the Vedas in the south-eastern provinces of India. The kings of these provinces consequently asked Ballala Sena to send some Brahmans, who were well versed in the Vedas, to their provinces. At this Ballala Sena was very glad, and having kept 100 in Barendrabhumi sent 250 Brahmans to those provinces. He distributed them in the following order :

निखिलन्पचक्रतिलक श्रीमदल्लालसेनदेवेन ।

i
पूर्ण शशिनवदशमिते शकाब्द दानसागरो रचितः ।
१०६१ शः अः =१०६१+६=११७० हः यः।

इति समयप्रकाशः । 1 N.B.-According to General Cunningham, Dr. R. L. Mitra and Mr. R.C. Dutta, Bal. lala reigned in the 11th century A.D., and according to HTCATE he reigned in the 14th century A.D.

* वरेन्द्रे तु तदा साईत्रिशतान्यग्रजन्मनाम् ।
राढ़ायान्तु विजाश्चासन् साहाम्भोधिशतानि च ।

वारेन्द्रकुलपौ।

fifty in Magadha, sixty in Bhota, sixty in Rabhang, forty in Utkal (Orissa), and forty in Maurang.1

After a few years Ballala divided those one hundred Barendra Brahmans into three sections according to their qualifications, namely: (1) Kulins, (2) Çuddhacrotriyas, and (3) Kaştaçrotriyas. The Kulins were the following eight houses : (1) Maitra, (2) Bhima, (3) Rudra (Bagchi), (4) Sanyamini (Sanyal), (5) Lahiri, (6) Bhaduri, (7) Sadhu (Bagchi), (8) Bhadara, and the following eight houses were the Çuddhaçrotriyas : (1) Karanja, (2) Nandanabashi, (3) Bhattashali, (4) Lauri or Larali,(5) Champati, (6) Jhampati, (7) Atirtha, (8) Kamadeva.* Among those houses, Udayanacharya, the celebrated author of the Kusumanjali, a treatise on the ethical branch of the Nyaya philosophy, was

1 वारेन्द्रवासिविप्राणां मध्ये चैकशतद्विजाः ।
वरेन्द्रे रक्षिता राज्ञा सदाचारपरायणाः ।
द्विशताधिकपञ्चाशद्वारेन्द्राणां दिजन्मनां ।
पञ्चाशन्मगधे पछिौटे परिः रभाग के ।
चत्वारिंशदुत्कले च मौड़ाऽपि तथाङ्ककाः ।
दत्ता नृपतिना हर्ष वल्लालेन महात्मना ।

वारेन्द्रकुलपञ्जौ।
आचारी विनयो विद्या प्रतिष्ठा तीर्थदर्शनम् ।
निष्ठाशान्तिस्तपोदानं नवधा कुललक्षणम् ॥

कूर्मपुराणम्।
जन्मना ब्राह्मणो ज्ञेयः संस्कारैईिज उच्यते ।
विद्यया याति विप्रत्वं त्रिभिः श्रोत्रियलक्षणम् ॥

प्रायश्चित्तविवेकः ।
बादौ मैत्रस्तथा भीमो रुद्रः संयामिनी तथा ।
लाहिड़ी भादुड़ी साधुर्भादरः पतिपूरकः ॥
करञ्जो,नन्दनावासौ भट्टशालौ च लाउरौ।
चम्पटी भम्पटी चैव आतीर्थः कामदेवकः ॥

वारेन्द्रकुलपञ्जी
5 क्रतोः सङ्कर्षणो नाम्ना पुत्रो जज्ञे महामतिः ।
सतर्षणात् सूतो जातः भल्लुकाचार्यविश्रुतः ॥

3

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born in the house of Bhaduri; and Kulluka Bhatta, the reputed author of the Manyarthamuktavali, a commentary on the Manusamhita, was

भल्लुकस्य सतावेतौ योगेश्वरदिवाकरौ।
भादुड़ी च करञ्जश्च तयोर्गाभिः स्मृतः क्रमात् ॥
योगेश्वरस्यात्मजो यः पुण्डरीकाक्षकः स्मृतः ।
ततो वृहस्पतिर्जज्ञे दिविदेवगुरुयथा ।
वेदजो ब्रह्मनिष्ठः स प्राचार्यपदमाप्तवान् ।
वौद्धाचार्यजिह्मनिना विचाररणमूर्द्धणि ।
विजितोऽपमानितश्च वनं गत्वा ममार च ।
वृहस्पतिसुतः श्रीमान् भुवि विख्यातमङ्गलः ।
धर्मसंस्थापनार्थाय वौद्धविध्वंसहेतवे ।
ख्यात उदयनाचार्यो वभूव शङ्करो यथा ।
सन्देशं पिटनाशस्य तथा पिटपराभवम् ।
बौद्धानां विजयश्चैव श्रुत्वा जज्वाल मन्युना ॥
ননঃ জ্বাল জিনা নীা লিকা বিদ্যান।
ब्रह्मतत्त्वप्रकाशाय चकार कुसुमाञ्जलिम् ॥

भादुडौवंशावली ॥
1 इति वारेन्द्रनन्दनावासीयभट्टदिवाकरात्मज-
श्रीमत्कुल्लकभट्टविरचितायां मन्वर्थमुक्तावल्यां
मनुवृत्तौ हादशोऽध्यायः।

मं सं १२ । ६०३ टीका।
अपिच-
गौड़े नन्दनावासिनानि सुजनैर्वन्ये वरेन्द्रां कुले
श्रीमद्भट्टदिवाकरस्य तनयः कुल्लूकभट्टोऽभवत् ।
काश्यामुत्तरवाहिजहुतनयातीरे समं पण्डितैः
तेनेयं क्रियते हिताय विदुषां मन्वर्थमुक्तावलौ ॥

इति मन्वर्थमुक्तावल्याम् ।

born in the house of Nandanabashi. It is needless to mention the names of 84 houses of the Kaşğaçrotriyas as they have no connection with the present topic.

There are different accounts as to how, after Ballala Sena, the Kap section was originated from the Kulin mentioned before. Among them the most popular is the following :

Once upon a time many Brahmans of the Kulin and the çrotriya sections were invited to a dinner given by Cukadeva Acharya, an inhabitant of the village named Brahmanbala, on the occasion of his father's annual Graddha ceremony. There was a prevailing custom in that time, which still exists, that the dinner should not begin until all the Brahmans were present, especially when a respectable man was absent. But in that dinner this custom was not observed, as the dinner began without waiting for one Nrisinha Laurial, of Çantipore, who was formerly an inhabitant of the village named Laur, in Sribatta (Sylhet), and who, it is said, though a Brahman, used to live by selling betel-leaves. He did not come in proper time. Afterwards when Nrisinha came he wanted to know the cause of the violation of the custom. In reply he was told that as he was not a respectable man so none could find any necessity to wait for him. At this reply, Nrisinha felt himself much insulted and determined to raise his status in the society. He accordingly came home and started for Majgram, a village on the river Atrai in the district of Rajshahi, with a view to get his daughter married to Madhu

Kullaka Bhatta was an inhabitant of the village named Guakhara, formerly in the district of Rajshahi but now in the Pabna district. Sir W. Jones praised him in the following words : " At length appeared Kullaka Bhatta, a Brahman of Bengal, who after a painful course of study, and the collation of numerous manuscripts, produced a work, of which it may, perhaps be said very truly, that it is the shortest yet the most luminous, the least ostentatious yet the most learned, the deepest yet the most agreeable commentary ever composed on any author, ancient or modern, European or Asiatic."

1 The well-known Advaita Acharya, a friend and disciple of Gauranga, was the great great-grandson of this Nộisinha Laurial. Nrisinha's son was Vidyadhara ; his son Chakari; his son Kuvera Acharya ; his son Advaita Acharya.

भक्तावतार आचार्योऽदेतो यः श्रीसदाशिवः ।
महादेवस्य मित्रं यः कुवेरो गुह्यकेश्वरः ।
कुवेरपण्डितः सोऽद्य जनकोऽस्य विदाम्बरः ।

लाउरीयालवंशावली।

and

गौरगणोद्देशदीपिका।

Maitra of that village, who was the most respectable Kulin among the Kulins of the then existing society.

After two or three days Nrisinha reached Majgram and met Madhu Maitra while he was performing his evening ritual on the bank of the river Atrai. He instantly made Madhu's acquaintance and requested him to marry his daughter, Madhu at first refused to do it being afraid of social degradation. But when Nrisinha expressed his firm determination to kill himself in the presence of Madhu after killing his wife, daughter, and cow, and throwing his Çalagrama (the family deity) which he took with him, into water, Madhu was then obliged to consent to marry his daughter. The marriage was, accordingly, performed then and there. When Madhu came home with his new wife, she was not accepted by his sons and former wife and was illtreated by them. Madhu was bound to divide his house into two halves by means of a fencing, in one of which he began to live with his new wife, being practically excommunicated from the society.

After some time Madhu found himself in great difficulty when his father's annual Çraddha day drew near, because none of the Brahmans of Majgram or its neighbourhood would dine in his house on that day. Helpless as he was, he went to invite Dhain Bagchi (WT ant), who was his brother-in-law (sister's husband) and lived some miles off his house; but Madhu could not find him. Madhu, however, asked Dhain's wife (bis sister) to tell her husband to go to his house on the day of his father's Craddha and returned home.

When Dhain Bagchi came home he heard from his wife of Madhu's suddenly coming to his place and was very much astonished, because Madhu never used to come to his house before. He asked his wife the cause of Madhu's coming, but she could not tell anything more than what Madhu told her. He, however, started for Majgram and reached there at midday. While entering into Madhu's portion of the house he, being obstructed by the fencing which Madhu had made, exclaimed,

Well, Sir, what a Kap have you created here ? " " Yes Sir," Madhu replied, “I have created a Kap there.” The word Kapis not a grammatical one so it bears no etymological meaning. It was spontaneously uttered by Dhain Bagchi in the sense of something intervening. But this word afterwards became the designation of the sons of Madhu Maitra by his former wife, who became a section of Barendra Brahmans intermodiate between the Kulins and the çrotriyas.

Afterwards Dhain Bagchi met Madhu Maitra and heard everything from him that happened before. On the very day he summoned all the Kulins and Srotriyas of Majgram and its neighbourhood to attend a meeting to be held at Madhu Maitra's house to judge the con

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