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year would appear to be Qaka 1120, making his reign nine years. But the copperplates ascribe to him ten years, which, if aqkas, would give eight years. This difference, if not due to mistake, is at present inexplicable.

Aniyanka Bhima Dāva has been once mentioned in the copperplates

Title. as Ananga Bhima Deva, and is distinctly

mentioned as such in the stone inscription at Cătăçvara temple, District Cuttack. [See Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. LXVII, 1898, Babu N. N. Vasu on “The Cătăçvara Inscription,” p. 320, 1.7; I have got a pencil rubbing of it on wax cloth].

He was the son of Córaganga, and brother of Rājarāja II. He succeeded Rājarāja apparently peacefully [cf. line 7, Cătăçvara inscription, p. 320 ; and Msghāgvara inscription, l, 11].

He had a Brähmin minister named Gövinda [Cătăçvara inscription l. 8, p. 32.1]. During his reign, Rājarāja II's brother-in-law Svapnäçvara Dāva had the temple of Māghāgvara built. The date of this temple would thus be approximately between Qaka 1115 and 1120, or between A.D. 1193-4 and 1198-9. *

. Last year.

Relationship,

Historical Facts.

VI. Rājarāja III.
[Qaka 1120 — Qaka 1133.]

Only one inscription of this king's time is known:—

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MATERIALs. No. -Date-extracts. - . References. REMARKS. Language. 1 | Qaka-varsambulu 11s218 gunēnti gri- Ep. Rep., No. 381, of Verified. T. m a d - Amashttavarmma-dévara pra- || Grikürmann.

varddhamāna-vijaya-rájya-samvatsa-
rambulu [1]1 Grähi Kumbha krus2]
Çukra-vāramuna, or Çaka 1128, 11th
year, Kumbha Kr. 2, Friday = 6th
February, A.D. 1207 (amānta). *
A little before 602 A.H., June or Tabakāt-i-Nă ş iri, The first

July A.D., 1205. Raverty’s transla- || Maho me -
o .' tion, pp. 573-4. dan inva-
s i on of

Orissa.

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No inscriptions with regnal years have yet been found of the next three kings, till one comes to Nrsimha Déva II. Falling back upon the years given in the Puri and Kéndupâtná copperplates, I find that if treated as amkas, they just fit in, thus:–

Last year.

Name of the king. First year. Last year. Period of reign.
(Qaka). (Qaka).

Rājarāja III 1120 1133 17th amka or 14th year

Analyga Bhima III 1133 1160 34th ,, 28th ,

Nrsimha Déva I I 160 1186 33rd ,, 27th ,

Bhānu Dāva I 1186 1200/1 18th ,, 15th ,

Nrsimha Déva II 1200/1 as deduced from his inscriptions.

These do not disagree with the inscriptional or other dates attributable to the times of the respective kings. Rājarāja III was son of Aniyanka. Bhima Dāva by his chief queen Bāghalla Dévi. He is spoken of as “Rājendra’’ in Cătăçvara inscription, 1.9, p. 321. First Mahomedan in- The first Mahomedan inroad into Orissa vasion. took place in his reign. “Trustworthy persons have related after this manner, that Muhammad-i-Sherān and Ahmad-i-Sherån were two brothers, two among the Khalj Amirs in the service of Muhammad-i-Bakht-yār; and when the latter led his troops towards the mountains of Kāmrūd and Tibbat, he had despatched Muhammad-i-Sherān and his brother, with a portion of his forces, towards Lakhan-or and Jāj-nagar. When the news of these events” [the retreat and death of Muhammad-i-Bakht-yār] “reached Muhammad-i-Sherān, he came back from that quarter and returned again to Diw-kot ” (pp. 573-4). Orissa was known to Mahomedan historians under the name Jājnagar. The inroad of Muhammad-i-Sherân took place shortly before the assasination of Muhammad-i-Bakht-yār, in 602 A.H. (p. 513), and just about the time of his departure for Kāmrūd, which according to Major Raverty, happened towards the close of 601 A.H. (note 4 to p. 560). Hence the approximate time of this inroad, the first Mahomedan invasion of Orissa, would be the close of 601 A.H, or about June or July of A.D. 1205. .* *

Relationship.

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The following inscriptions of the time of this king are known:—

MATERIALS.

No. Lan- Date-extracts, References. REMARKs. guage. 1 | Rājarāja-tanuja-Ananga-Bhima-vira ... Inscription No. 3, on | Unverifiable. S. ............ rājasya sämnājy-ābhişāka- the south jamb of caturtha-samvatsaré, or 4th year the porch of the after abhigéka. great Temple, Bhuvanégvara, line s 1-4. 2 Cătăçvara inscription, Circa Qaka 1142|| Jour. As. Soc. Beng., | Ditto. or A.D. 1220. Vol. LXVII, 1898, pp. 317-27. 3 || Jayati sakala-varna-jan-ālankrta-rāja- || Inscription No. 1, on Ditto. S. Øri-Bhima-dāv-ābda ...................... the north jamb of trtiyāyā guru-vāré Magha-naksatrè, the porch of the or + + 3rd tithi, Thursday, Maghā- great Temple of naksatra. Krttivāsa, Bhuvanägvara, lines 2-5. 4 |Qak-āvd-aikādaça-gaté cutvārisat-ād- |Inscription No. 2, on | Werified. S. (dh)ikā-pashcamakai mbha(?) (vi)ra- the north jamb of Ananga-Bhima-dévasya pravaddhati- the porch of the samvatsaré + + [year illegible] | great Temple, Bhuto e o a to so Dhanu krsna-pratipadi Bhauma- || Vaněqvara, lines vārā, or Çaka 1145, year + , Dhanu 1-8. Kr. 1, Tuesday == 9th January, A.D. 1224 (amānta). 5 || Between 608 and 622 A.H., say about | Tabak a t-i-Nāşiri, Fight with 609 A.H. = 1212 A.D. Raverty's transla- the Mahotion, pp. 587-8; medans. Cătăçvara inscription, 1.15, p. 322. 6 || Before 1220 A.D. e & Cătăçvara inscrip- || Fight with tion, l. 14, p. 322. the king of Tummāna, *. country. 7 || “Sa 24” © o o ... Jour. As. Soc. Beng., | A gold coin

Wol. LXVI, 1897,
pp. 144-5, Plate WI;
Proc. As. Soc. Beng.,
Aug. 1898.

with the 1 e t t e r s 66 ana,” and year 24.

, No regnal year of this king being available, his first and last years

First and last years.

have been calculated by treating the year assigned to him in Puri and Köndupätnā

copperplates, as amka year [see supra, the remarks under Rājarāja III, p. 117]. He was son of Rājarāja III by his Queen Sadguna or Mamkuna Relationshi Davi of Călukya race. He is styled “Trie18tlonShlp, kalinga-nātha' in Cătăçvara inscription, l. 12,

p. 321. He had a Brähmin minister named Visnu who fought for him with “ Tummāna-prihvi-pateh” (Cât. ins., ll. 14-5), and with the Yavanas, “Yavan-āvan-indusamaré" (Do., l. 15). Babu N. N. Vasu reads Tummāna as Tumghāna, and identifies this with Tughril-i-tughān Khān [J.A.S.B., XLV, 233-4; XLVII, p. 319]. The identification is open to objections. Firstly, the expression “ Tummāna-prihvi-patéh" means “of the king of the Tummāna land,” and therefore Tummāna cannot be applied to any person. Secondly, the fight with Tughān Khān took place on 13th Shawwal, A.H. 642, or in March 1245 A.D., i.e., six or seven years after Ananga Bhima Déva had ceased to rule. In fact, Tummāna land was in the Central Provinces, and has been repeatedly mentioned in the inscriptions of the Câdi kings [Ep. Ind., Vol. I, pp. 34, 35, 40, 41, 47]. These Câdi kings being rulers of the adjoining province, Daksinakösala, were from time to time at war with the kings of Orissa. One of them, Ratna Déva, is said to have defeated even Cöraganga. Their position is further indicated by the statement that the fight took place in the groves on the banks of the Bhimä river at the foot of the Windhya hills. They, too, apparently invaded Orissa, as fighting on the bank of the sea is also mentioned. The fight with the Yavanas, mentioned in verse 15, line 15, refers probably to some inroads of Ghiyāş-ud-din ‘Iwaz, the fourth Bengal ruler. Of him Tabakāt-i-Nāsiri says:— “In short, Ghiyāş-ud-din ‘Iwaz, the Khalj, was a monarch worthy, just, and benevolent. The parts around about the state of Lakhanawati, such as Jāj-nagar, the countries of Bang, Kāmrūd, and Tirhut, all sent tribute to him.” (pp. 587-8). Sultān Ghiyās-ud-din ‘Iwaz was raised to the throne in about 608 A.H.; and the sending of tribute by Jāj-nagar is mentioned before the invasion of Bengal by I-yal-timish in 622 A.H. The invasion of Jājnagar to gather tributes thus apparently fell between 608 and 622 A.H., or between A.D. 1211 and 1224. The Mahomedans make inroads very often when the ruler of the country had just ascended the throne, or the defences of the country had been neglected by some civil war. Ananga Bhima came to the throne in A.D. 1211-2, and the probability is that shortly after this time the Mahomedan inroad was made. This fixes

Historical Facts.

the anterior limit of the Cătăçvara inscription also. Several years would have elapsed between the minister Visnu's fight with the Yavanas and the finishing of the temple. So, Circa 1120 A.D. may be taken as the likely date of the composition of the temple inscription. *

Dr. Hoernle published in Plate VI, one gold coin (No. 22), which has got the letters “Cri ana” and “sa” below them (Samvat), and two figures which I would read “24.” Dr. Hultzsch took “ana” to mean Anantavarmman; but as I pointed out in my letter to Dr. Hoernle, dated 10th July, 1898, “ana” is more likely the abbreviation of a name, as Ananga Bhima, than an abbreviation of a common title like Anantavarmman. If this view be correct, then No. 22 is applicable only to Ananga Bhima Dāva III, whose regnal years exceeded 24.

The temples of Mukhalingam or Çrikürman do not unfortunately contain any direct inscriptions of this king, but there are some which contain references to him. In No. 307 of Qrikürmam, dated 1172 Qaka, Pratāpa-vira-Narasimha Déva, son of Ananga Bhima Déva, was ruling. In No. 349 of Çrikārmarh, dated Qaka 1177, certain lands in Ippili which had been previously granted by the king Ananga Bhima, were regranted; No. 298 of Çrikürmam, dated Qaka 1205, mentions a gift of lamp by the wife of one Nrsimha Bhattöpādhyāya who was a contemporary of the king Ananga-Bhima; No. 296 of Çrikürmam, dated Qaka 1205, mentions another grant of the same lady. *.

In the Mādalū Pañji, this king is said to have been the most powerful of the whole family, to have built (in one version finished) the temple of Jagannātha, to have surveyed the whole kingdom, and to have made numerous grants. None of these statements has as yet been corroborated by inscriptions.

VIII. Nrsinha Deva I.
[Qāka 1160 — Qaka 1186. I
Only one inscription of his time has hitherto been found:—

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