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Makara Qu. 13, Monday = 6th Feb

ruary, A.D. 1251.
6th Zi-ka'dah, A.H. 641, Saturday Tab a kā t-i-Nāsiri, Fight with

16th April, A.D. 1244. Translation by M a l i k
Major Raverty, p. Tughril - i.
738. Tu 'gh á n
Khān at
Katäsin.
Ditto, pp. 665, 739, The invasion

762-3. of Bengal by Jāj-nagar forces, and their arrival opposite Lak

* hanawati.

Between A.H. 644-656 (A.D, 1247. Ditto, pp. 762-3, Three battles 1258). with Malik Ikhtiy firu d - d. in Y iz-bak-iTugh ril Khān. “The following year” ... ..., | Ditto, p. 763. Invasion and capture of Umurdan, the Rāe’s capital, by Malik Yüzbak.

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13th Shawwal, A.H. 642, Tuesday
14th March A.D., 1245.

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No regnal years being available, the year of reign has been deduced from the figure given in Puri and Kāndupātnä Plates, viz., 33, which as amka is equal to 24th year. See remarks under Rājarāja III [supra p. 117]. The king was son of Ananga-Bhima Dava by his wife Kastūrā Dévi. In Ep. Rep., No. 307, he is also described as born of the king Ananga-Bhima. The name is generally written as Narasimha. The copperplates speak of the king's invasion of Rärhā and Warange * dra and the defeat of Yavanas there. This Historical Facts. fight with Bengal Mahomedans is corrobo

rated by Tabakat-i-Nāsiri. I quote the passages in full, as being J. I. 16

First and last years.

Relationship.

the statements of a contemporary, and, in one instance, of an eyewitness:— “In the year 641 H., the Rāe of Jāj-nagar commenced molesting “the Lakhanawati territory; and in the month of Shawwal, 641 H. “Malik Tughril-i-Tughān Khan marched towards the Jāj-nagar coun“try, and this servant of the State [Minhāj-i-Sarāj, Jürjānil accom“panied him on that holy expedition. On reaching Katāsin, which was “the boundary of Jāj-nagar [on the side of Lakhanawatij, on Saturday “the 6th of the month of Zi-ka'dah 641 H., Malik Tughril-i-Tughān “Khān made his troops mount, and an engagement commenced. The “holy-warriors of Islām passed over two ditches, and the Hindú infidels “took to flight. So far as they continued in the author's sight, except “the fodder which was before their elephants, nothing fell into the “hands of the footmen of the army of the Islām, and moreover, Malik “Tughril-i-Tughān Khān's commands were that no one should molest “the elephants, and for this reason the fierce fire of battle subsided.” “When the engagement had been kept up until midday the foot“men of the Musalmān army—everyone of them—returned [to the “camp P] to eat their food, and the Hindús, in another direction stole “through the cane Jangal, and took five elephants; and about two “hundred foot and fifty horsemen came upon the rear of a portion of “the Musalmān army. The Muhammadans sustained an overthrow, “and a great number of these holy warriors attained martyrdom; and “Malik Tughril-i-Tughān Khān retired from that place without having “effected his object, and returned to Lakhanawati.” (p. 738). “In the same year likewise [642 H.], the Rāe of Jāj-nagar, in order to avenge the plundering of Katāsin, which had taken place the preceding year, as has been already recorded, having turned his face towards Lakhanawati territory, on Tuesday, the 13th of the month of Shawwal, 642 H., the army of infidels of Jāj-nagar, consisting of elephants, and pāyīks [foot-men] in great numbers, arrived opposite Lakhanawati. Malik Tughril-i-Tughān Khān came out of the city to confront them. The infidel host, on coming beyond the frontier of the Jāj-nagar territory, first took Lakham-or; and Fakhr-ul-Mulk, Karim-ud-din, Lāghri, who was the feudatory of Lakhan-or, with a body of Musalmāns, they made martyrs of, and after that, appeared before the gate of Lakhanawati. The second day after that, swift messengers arrived from above [the Do-ābah and Awadh, &c.], and gave information respecting the army of Islām that it was near at hand. Panic now took possession of the infidels, and they decamped.” (pp. 739-40). This inroad up to Lakhanawati is also indicated in the following:“The leader of the forces of Jāj-nagar was a person, by name,

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Sāban-tarsSãwantara P], the son-in-law of the Räe, who during the time of Malik 'Izz-ud-din Tughril-i-Tughān Khān, had advanced to the bank of the river of Lakhanawati, and having shown the greatest audacity, had driven the Musalmān forces as far as the gate [of the city] of Lakhanawati.” (pp. 762-3). 4 “In the year 64.2 H., the infidels of Jāj-nagar appeared before the gate of Lakhanawati.” (p. 665). Other fights with a succeeding Bengal ruler also took place during this king's time. “After he ” [Malik Ikhtiyār-ud-din Yüz-bak-i-Tughril Khān) “went to that part, and brought that country” [Lakhanawati) “under his jurisdiction, hostility arose between him and the Rāe of Jāj-nagar. The leader of the forces of Jāj-nagar was a person, by name, Sāban-tar’’. . . [see above]. In Malik Tughril Khān-i-Yüz-bak's time, judging from the past, he [the Jāj-nagar leader] manifested great boldness, and fought, and was defeated. Again, another time, Malik Tughril Khān-iYüz-bak fought an engagement with the Rāe of Jāj-nagar, and again " came out victorious. “On a third occasion, Malik Yüz-bak sustained a slight reverse, and a white elephant than which there was no other more valuable in that part, and which was ruttish, got out of his hands in the field of battle, and fell into the hands of the infidels of Jāj-nagar. “The following year, however, Malik Yüz-bak asked assistance from the court of Delhi, and then marched an army from Lakhanawati into the territory of Umurdan, and unexpectedly reached the Rāe's capital, which city they style Umurdan. The Rāe of that place retired before Malik Yüz-bak, and the whole of the Räe's family, dependants, and followers, and his wealth, and elephants, fell into the hands of the Musalmān forces.” (p. 763). Minhäj-i-Sarāj gives the dates of the fights with Malik Tughril-iTughān Khān (A.H. 641-2); but gives no dates of the fights with Malik Tughril Khān-i-Yüz-bak. The latter could not have got Bengal before Malik Tamur Khān-i-ki-rān who died on “Friday, the end of the month of Shawwal,” A.H. 644, or A.D. 1247, March (p. 741); and he must have ceased to rule before the capture of Lakhanawati by Malik Tāj-ud-din Arsalān Khān Sanjar-i-ghast, in 657 A.H. or A.D., 1259, when Malik 'Izz-ud-din Balban-i-Yüz-baki is said to have been the feudatory in charge of Lakhanawati (pp. 769-70). In J.A.S.B., LXV, 1896, pp. 232-4, Babu N. N. Vasu has argued that the “Saban-tar” who led the forces of Jāj-nagar was probably Narasimha Déva I, and “that Minhāj, by mistake has described the son to be the son-in-law.” Now that the fights have been in this article shewn to have taken place in the time of Nrsimha Déva himself he will not, I trust, be identified with his son-in-law, the såtră (lit. Sāmanta-Rāya). Nrsimha Déva I will be remembered, however, by posterity, as the king under whose orders the great temple of Kanārka was built. All the copperplates agree in ascribing to him the erection of the sun Temple at Könáköna. • In Qrikürmam temple no inscription of the king himself has been found. No. 307 records a grant by one Sãhasa-malla during this king's reign. In No. 352 is recorded a grant by one Vijayaditya whose father Rājarāja was a minister (maintri) of this king, Vira Nrsimha I; [see Dr. Hultzsch, Ep. Ind., Wol. W., p. 33]. Dr. R. G. Bhandārkar has discovered an Alaskāra work, Ekävali, whose author Vidyādhara flourished in the court of a Narasimha Déva, king of Utkala and Kalinga, (Narasimha II., according to Dr. Bhandārkar),[Report on Sanskrit MSS., 1887-91, pp. LXV-LXIX]. This king I am inclined to identify with Nrsimha Déva I, from the mention in the poem of the poet Harihara and his patron king Arjuna of Mālwa (whose latest known date is 9th September, A.D. 1215), and from Vidyādhara's description of the Utkala king as having humbled the pride of Hammira, this being a title of the early Sultāns of Delhi. [See Thomas, Chron. Path. kings, pp. 15, 16, 20, 50, 70, 71, 75, 90, 91, 103, 108, 119, 123, 127, 137; Ind, Ant., Vol. XX, p. 208 et seq.; J.A.S.B., Vol. XLIII, p. 108]. [Since writing this, the Ekävali has been printed in the Bombay Sanskrit Series under the editorship of Mr. K. P. Trivedi; and thanks to Dr. Bhandārkar I have just got a copy of it. In the introductory note (pp. xxxiii—xxxvii), Dr. Bhandārkar is still inclined to take the king to be Narasimha Déva II, chiefly from the fact that he is described in the Puri copperplates as “kavi-priyah" (A. IV. 42), and “kavi-kumuda-candró” (A. W. 3). This identification, however, does not explain the specific mention of the fights with “Hammira, ’’ “Yavana” and “Qaka” kings in Bengal, (cf. pp. 176, 177, 202, 203, 257, 260, 326). Nrsimha Déva II has nowhere been credited with any invasion of Bengal or with any war against the Mahomedans. For a fuller discussion, see Appendix II.] Ekävali is fortunate enough to have got a commentary named Tarală from the great commentator Mallinătha. It has been several times quoted in the citra-mimāmsā and kuvalayānanda of Appaya Diksita

IX. Bhānu Déva I.
[Qaka 1186 – Qaka 1200-1].
The following two inscriptions of this king's time are known:—

MATERIALs. No. Date-extracts. References. REMARKs, Language. 1 | Qāk-ābdālāka-ratn-âbani-Qaçi-gay it 5 | Ep. Rep., No. 351, of | UnverifiaS. Wrigcikarh yāti bhānau guklā Kand- || Grikürmam. ble.

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Regnal years wanting, the year of the Köndupātná copperplates has been accepted, viz., 18 ankas, equal to fifteenth year. The last year of this king is ascertained from the initial year of his successor, as 1200-1 Qaka.

Bhānu Déva was son of Nrsihha Déva I by Sitā Dévi, daughter of
Mālacandra. He is also called Vira-Bhānu
Děva.

In the copperplates he is said to have given one hundred grants of lands with houses and gardens to good Qrötriya Brähmanas, written on copperplates.

First and Tlast year.

Iłelationship.

X. Nrsimha Déva II.
[Qaka 1200-1 — Qaka 1227-28].

A considerable number of inscriptions of this king's time has been brought to light:—

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