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III.-TIREIUT.

There are few regions of India possessing an ancient civilization about which we have less definite historic information than the region north of the Ganges variously known as Videha, Tirabhukti, or (from its capital) Mithilă. Neither the work of Prinsep, nor its excellent successor, that of Miss C. M. Duff, attempts a ‘Dynastic list’ for this country. Chronological indications are thus peculiarly valuable. There would seem to have been a certain degree of literary intercourse between Nepal and Tirhut, the frontier state on the direct route to the plains. Accordingly a large number of the MSS. in the present Catalogue are written by Tirhuti scribes in their characteristic (Maithili) script and dated mostly in the common era of the country, that of Laksmana Sena. On pp. 131-2 we find a case where a MS. is by a Tirhuti scribe domiciled in Nepal. For it will be observed that not only are the writing and the era those of Mithilä, but the scribe goes out of his way to describe Lalita-pattan (‘Patan’); where the MS. was copied, as “situated in the kingdom of Nepal.’ A notice of far greater interest and importance is preserved through a case of intercourse in the opposite direction, where a Nepalese scribe was living in Tirhut. This is the case of the MS. of part of the Rāmāyana, No. 1079, briefly noticed at p. 34 of the Catalogue. The colophon in question occurs at the end of the Kiskindyakanda at ff. 375-6. As it is not given in the Catalogue, I here transcribe it from my own notes: Samvat 1076 (8°et) asādha bad; 4 mahārājādhirāja punyàvaloka-somavanśodbhava-gaudadhvaja-Śrāmad-Gáñgeyadevabhujyamāna-Tărabhaktau kalyānavijarājye Nepāladeśāya-Śri bhāficu şālikaŚrī Anandasya pātakāvasthita (kāyastha)' pandita Śri Śri Kurasyātmaja§ri. Gopatinälekhidam. Interpreting this according to the somewhat “free-and-easy' Sanskrit used by scribes, I understand it to mean that in Samvat 1076 Gopati, son of Srikura, (Kāyastha) pandit belonging to the country of Nepal and living in Ananda's pātaka” belonging to Bhāńcu Śāli (?), copied this during a victorious reign in 'i'irhut, when it was ruled by Gåågeyadeva, the great king, beholder of holiness, sprung from the lunar race and banner of Gauda. The writing of the MS. is the archaic ‘Lantsa’ of Nepal, so that we may quite well refer the Samvat to the Vikrama era. If this be granted, it must surely follow that we may identify the king with Gäägeya-deva, Kalacuri of Cedi, likewise of lunar lineage, I who was thus reigning in A.D. 1019, or some 11 years before Alberuni 3 mentions him as ruling in Dahāla, in 1030. Gāńgeyadeva's influence has not been hitherto traced so far east as Tirhut ; but it is noteworthy that his son also, Karnadeva, claimed influence in Gauda,” still further east. Nothing appears to be known of the rulers of Tirhut from this time to the 14th century, when the Thäkur dynasty appeared. A full genealogical table of this family was given by Dr. Grierson in Ind. Antiquary XIV, p. 196, and this was supplemented by him with further notes in the same journal in March 1899 (XXVIII, p. 57). Our Catalogue gives (p. 63) a date, L.S. 392,” for one of the later kings, Kansanārāyana, also called Laksminātha, which is the more acceptable as I have elsewhere shown,” that the native chronology for this dynasty is incorrect. In the same year, Laksmana Samvat 392, was copied the MS. described at Cat., p. 122, which gives a further confirmation of the succession of this dynasty, calling it the Srotriya (brahmanical) vaméa. At p. 65 we meet with an interesting confirmation of the correctness of the details given in Dr. Grierson's table, as we there find a MS. by order of a non-reigning prince, viz., Gadādharadeva” (mahārajādhirājavara kumâra) in L.S. 372 (A.D. 1490), a date which fits very well with that last mentioned. If Râmasimha, the king of Mithila mentioned at p. 23 med, be the same as Rāmabhadra, then the composition of Srikara's commentary on the Amarakośa there described falls at the end of the 15th century. The prince Indusena, or Indrasena, the author of the work described at p. 265, would seem from his biruda Rupanārāyana to have belonged to this family. I subjoin a short table of this dynasty (Table III). GoRAKHPUR-C(H)AMPARAN. In this region, that is, in the country south of Nepal on both sides of the Gandak, there reigned during the 15th century a dynasty, hitherto not noticed by European writers, but

1 Added in a different hand.

* Cf. Ind. Ant. XVIII. 135, where pātaka is interpreted to mean the subdivision of a village ; hence bhāācu şālika may well contain the name of the larger village or district.

1 Ep. Ind. II. 9,11.

* India (tr.) I. 202; Gáñgeya is also known from coins, some of them found as far north as Gorakhpur : Rapson, Indian Coins (Grundriss, II 8B), p. 38; W. A. Smith, J. A. S. B., LXVI. i. 306.

8 Ind. Amt. XVIII. 217, moreover Karma's son made one expedition to Campáramya. Ep. Ind. loc.cit.

4 392 current. The date works out, as Dr. Kielhorn kindly informs me, to Wednesday 18th December, 1510,

* J. R.A. S. 1898, p. 233. Dr. Eggeling, Cat. I. O., p. 875, seems to accept it somewhat too readily.

* Kumāra Gadādhara Simha in that table,

*. apparently connected with that last mentioned. Several of the rulers are mentioned in colophons of the present catalogue, and one of these must be in all probability identified with the issue of a series of coins, unpublished as yet and also undated, but apparently belong'ing to this century. - - - w The first sovereign mentioned is Prthvisimhadeva in whose reign in [Vikrama] Samvat 1492 (A.D. 1434-5) at Campakaranyanagara was copied MS. No. 1508 (s) at p. 61. His successor was probably, as we shall presently see, Saktisimha. Of the next king, Madana or Madanasimhadeva, we have three mentions in these MSS. At p. 51.1-8 we find him mentioned as reigning in Vikrama-Samvat 1511 (A.D. 1453-4) at Campakāramyanagara. Bis - epithets are interesting. The first, vipraraja, seems to point to his & belonging to the same Śrotriya vanśa which reigned in (Eastern) Tirhut and so does the biruda ending in nārāyana which all the members of that dynasty assumed. The pandit is uncertain about the reading daityanarāyana, but I find from my own notes on the same MS. that I read the compound thus. I should propose to interpret it like daityanisiidana and daiiyār; (both epithets of Visnu) by reference to the Vaisnava faith of the king. This would accord well with the legend of a set of coins first identified by Dr. Hoey with this same region and at present in the e- British Museum. This legend is itsäwo orus gură Root and on the reverse of arrativu 1. The lettering of the coins may well belong to the 15th century and I am glad to have the authority of my friend Mr. Rapson, to whom I am indebted for my knowledge of the coins, that , their general style and workmanship is referable to the same period. • At p. 29 (MS. 1001 st) we find another MS. of the same reign written at Goraksapura in L.S. 339 (1457 A.D.) It is interesting to note that the era used is that of Laksmana Sena, as it confirms the accuracy of the Vikrama date, and also forms the first instance hitherto noted of the employment of the era west of the Gandak, i.e., beyond the limits of Bengal. Lastly, Madana, appears as a royal author giving his name to the Madama-ratnapradipa (p. 223). This work is said in the colophon to have been composed (viracita) by the “king Madanasimhadeva, who was the son of king Saktisimha [see above], adorned with many birudas.” At the beginning of the text, however, the work is only said to be ‘promulgated (prakāśyate) by Madana' and at the end we are , told that he got the work done (kārita —doubtless a , common case with Indian royal authors () by one Viśvanātha living at ‘Kāši-tirtha," probably Benares. . . . . . . . . 1 Does the prefix Sri imply the abovementioned town of Campakāravya, rather. than the mere region so-called P - - -

TABLE 1.

KINGS OF NEPAL PROPER FROM THE COMMENGEMENT OF THE ERA OF NEPAL TO THE DIVISION OF THE KINGDOM

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Abbreviations • ‘V, VI, V8, V8, represent the newly-discovered Vamsävali and its three divisions; ‘Cat.' the catalogue of the

Durbar Library by Pandit Haraprasād Săstri; ‘Camb. Cat.’ my own catalogue of Buddhist Skt. MSS. at Cambridge.
after dates represent respectively the kind assistance of my friends, Proff. Kielhorn and Jacobi, in verification.

Or.’ are those recently acquired by me in Nepal ; expd.-expired (gata) year expressed in the Ms., [expd.] the same not expressed

‘K’ and ‘H. J.,
MSS. marked “Camb.

References, to

Reign acc.

Nepal era, when Equivalent MSS., etc. to W.
not otherwise A.D
specified. to - ... e.
Rāghavadeva 46, 6 mo. Traditional founder of Nepal era (20th
Jayadeva 10. October, 879).
Vikramadeva 8, 9 mo.
Narendradeva & e s 1, 6 mo.
Gunakāmadeva I. * G - C to so 65, 5 mo.
Udayadeva to so o e is e eos e to 5, 5 mo.
joy" }|128, Phálguna 1008 Camb. Add. 866 ||Not named.
Bhoja so to e * * * to o e When Camb. Add. 2191 was copied
(date gone), Bhoja was ruling alone.
Rudra 135, Caitra 1015 39 ,, 1643 “ These joint regencies not referred to
Laksmikāmadeva I. in W.
Laksmikāmadeva I. (sole | 159, sexpd.] Waiš | 1039 ,, , 1683 21 ...] ‘Friday, 30th March 1039.' (Kielhorn) 1.

but calculated.

Dates in italic figures are derived from the chronicle (W.) only.

DATES WITH MonTHS.

ruler.)

l Communicated by letter.

in the Nagari Text (not, however, in the Arabic numerals) of my Cambridge Cat., p. 172.

Dr. Kielhorn's previous working (I. Ant. XVII. 252) of the date as a current year rested on a misprint

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DATES WITH MonTHs.

243 Jyestha

1123

Camb. Or 142 ...

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References to Reign acc. Nepal era, when o MSS., etc. to W. . otherwise Bont g 2 y specified. ~. Jaya (“Wijaya' W) QQQ, © o e o e 6 31 ... Reigned over half the kingdom at Lali, tăpur (W.l.) * Bhāskaradeval 167 [current], ÁŠv. 1046, Sept. Cat., p. 30 3 ... ‘Wednesday, 24th September, 1046’ (K) Baladeva 180 Māgha 1059-60 , 11 12 ... Called ‘Balavanta’’ in Wl and (wrongly) Ś 1064 dd. 16 N faded Băladeva in my previous lists. - 185 Vaiś. -5 Camb. Add. 1684 || Name fade Pradyumna-kāmadeva. { 186 Māgha 1065-6 33 ,, 2197 in W. Probably (1) Wed., 25 Jan. 1066 (K.). Nāgārjuna o e e to 9 o' 9 e e 2. s o sThis date is confirmed by my own note 189, Åsädha 1068-9 Cat., p. 92 made from the MS. | 1070-7 T; o Collection o, the Society. * ... .o | | 191, Phälg exp, 0-71 A.S.B. A 15 > . Rāj. Mitra, Astas. Pref. p. xxi., Safikaradeva : g exp 15 note, o Foucher, foil. p. 27. 198 current, Srāv. 1077 A.S.B. (coll. of J.A.S.B. lxii. i. 249. Wallée-Poussin, | 1893) Bouddhisme p. 388. The date does U U not work out,as Dr. Jacobi informs me. Wāmadeva 200, Māgha 1080-81 Minaev-coll. St. 3 A copied date of somewhat uncertain Petersburg interpretation, J. R. A. S., 1891, p. 687. | 14 years ( ‘Friday, 10th May, 1090’ (K). The date s 210 [expd.] Jyestha 1090, May Käthmāndu No. (about } is omitted in the Cat., p. 30; but wa Harsad 1002. (1084-1098) verified by myself. rşadeva 213 expd. Caitra | 1093 Camb. Add. 2197 * 3. | 219 current 1098 Wl fol. 24 a ... J Wording of date quoted above. 239 Waiśākha #; WI; see plate fig. 4. 27, 5 mo _ of - 240, prathama- 0. India-office, Hodg- 2 * Sivadeva (? o (about See above, pp. 6-7. (8) } Asādha. son, 73 A. . 1098-1125)

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