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Last year.

year would appear to be Çaka 1120, making

his reign nine years. But the copperplates ascribe to him ten years, which, if aŋkas, would give eight years. This difference, if not due to mistake, is at present inexplicable. Aniyanka Bhima Dāva has been once mentioned in the copperplates

as Ananga Bhima Dēva, and is distinctly Title.

mentioned as such in the stone inscription at Cātēcvara temple, District Cuttack. [See Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. LXVII, 1898, Babu N: N. Vasu on "The Cātāçvara Inscription," p. 320, 1.7; I have got a pencil rubbing of it on wax cloth]. He was the son of Cõraganga, and brother of Rājarāja II. He

succeeded Rājarāja apparently peacefully Relationship.

[cf. line 7, Cātēçvara inscription, p. 320; and Mēghēgvara inscription, l. 11). He had a Brāhmin minister named Govinda (Cātēcvara inscription

1. 8, p. 321]. During his reign, Rājarāja Historical Facts.

II's brother-in-law Svapnēçvara Dāva had the temple of Mēghēçvara built. The date of this temple would thus be approximately between Çaka 1115 and 1120, or between A.D. 1193-4. and 1198-9.

VI. Rājarāja III.

[Çaka 1120 – Çaka 1133.]
Only one inscription of this king's time is known :-

MATERIALS.

[graphic]

Lan. guage,

1 T.

Çaka-varşambulu 11[2]8 gunāņți çri. Ep. Rep., No. 381, of Verified.
mad. Anajnţtavarmma-dēvara pra- Crikūrmam.
varddbamāna-vijaya-rājya-samvatsa-
rambulu [1]l çrāhi Kumbha kru[2]
Çukra-vāramana, or Çaka 1128, 11th
year, Kumbha Kr. 2, Friday=6th
February, A.D. 1207 (amānta).
A little before 602 A.H., June or Tabaķāt-i-Nāșiri, The first
July A.D., 1205.

Raverty's transla

Mahometion, pp. 573.4.

dan inva. sion of Orissa.

First year.

Çaka 1128

1120

11th anka or 9th year; 2nd aŋka or 1st year.

Last year.

No inscriptions with regnal years have yet been found of the next

three kings, till one comes to Nșsimha Dēva

II. Falling back upon the years given in the Pari and Kendupātnā copperplates, I find that if treated as aŋkas, they just fit in, thus:

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Rājarāja III

1120

1133 17th aŋka or 14th year Anaiga Bhima III 1133 1160 34th

28th Nșsimha Dēva I 1160

1186 33rd

27th Bhānu Dēva I 1186 1200/1 18th

15th Nrsimha Dāva II 1200/1 as deduced from his inscriptions.

These do not disagree with the inscriptional or other dates attributable to the times of the respective kings. Rājarāja III was son of Aniyanka Bhima Dēva by his chief

queen Bāghalla Dāvi. He is spoken of as Relationship.

Rājendra" in Cātēçvara inscription, 1. 9,

p. 321.

First Mahomedan in.

The first Mahomedan inroad into Orissa Fasion.

took place in his reign. " Trustworthy persons have related after this manner, that Muḥammad-i-Sherān and Aḥmad-i-Sherān were two brothers, two among the Khalj Amirs in the service of Muḥammad-i-Bakht-yār; and when the latter led his troops towards the mountains of Kāmrūd and Tibbat, he had despatched Muhammad-i-Sherān and his brother, with a portion of his forces, towards Lakhan-or and Jāj-nagar. When the news of these events” (the retreat and death of Muhammad-i-Bakht-yār] "reached Muhammad-i-Sherān, he came back from that quarter and returned again to Diw-kot” (pp. 573-4).

Orissa was known to Mahomedan historians under the name Jājnagar. The inroad of Muḥammad-i-Sherān took place shortly before the assasination of Muhammad-i-Bakht-yār, in 602 A.H. (p. 513), and just about the time of his departure for Kâmrūd, which according to Major Raverty, happened towards the close of 601 A.H. (note 4 to p. 560). Hence the approximate time of this inroad, the first Mahomedan invasion of Orissa, would be the close of 601 A.H. or about June or July of A.D. 1205.

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The following inscriptions of the time of this king are known :

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1

Unverifiable.

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Rājarāja-tanaja-Anaŋga-Bhima-vīra ... Inscription No. 3, on

rājasya sãmrājy•ābhişēka. the south jamb of
caturtha-samvatsarē, or 4th year the porch of the
after abhisēka.

great Temple, Bhu.
vanēçvara, lines

1.4.
Cațēçvara inscription, Circa Çaka 1142 Joar. As. Soc. Beng.,
or A.D. 1220.

Vol. LXVII, 1898,

2

Ditto.

pp. 317-27.

3 Jayati sakala-varna-jan-ālaŋkrta-rāja- Inscription No. 1, on Ditto. S. Şri-Bhima-dõv-ābda

the north jamb of trtīyāyő guru-vārē Magha-nakşatro, the porch of the or + + 3rd tithi, Thursday, Maghā- great Temple of nakşatra.

Kșttivāsa, Bhuva.

nēçvara, lines 2-5. 4 Çak-ãvd-aikādaça-çatē cutvārisat-ad. Inscription No. 2, on Verified. S. (dh)ikē-pamcamakai mbba(?) (vī)ra- the north jamb of

Anaŋga-Bhīma-dēvasya pravaddhati. the porch of the
samvatsarā + + [year illegible] great Temple, Bhu.

Dhanu kļşņa-pratipadi Bhauma- vanēçvara, lines
vārē, or Çaka 1145, year + Dbanu 1-3.
Kr. 1,

Tuesday - 9th January, A.D. 1224 (amanta). 5 Between 608 and 622 A.H., say about Tabaķāt-i-Náşirī, Fight with 609 A.H. = 1212 A.D.

Raverty's transla- the Maho-
tion,
pp.

587-8; medans. Cātēçvara inscrip

tion, 1. 15, p. 322. 6 Before 1220 A.D.

Cātēçvara inscrip- Fight with tion, 1. 14, p. 322. the king of

Tammāņa

country. 7 “ Sa 24"

Joar. As. Soc. Beng., | A gold coin Vol. LXVI, 1897, with the pp. 144-5, Plate VI;

letters Proc. As. Soc. Beng.,

ana," and Aug. 1898.

...

year 24,

No regnal year of this king being available, his first and last years

have been calculated by treating the year First and last years,

assigned to him in Puri and Kəndupātņā

.

copperplates, as aŋka year [see supra, the remarks under Rājarāja III, p. 117). He was son of Rājarāja III by his Queen Sadguņa or Maŋkuņa

Dēvi of Calukya race. He is styled TriRelationship.

kalinga-nātha" in Cātēçvara inscription, 1. 12, . He had a Brāhmin minister named Vișnu who fought for him with

"Tummāna-prthvi-patēh" (Cāt. ins., 11. 14-5), Historical Facts.

and with the Yavanas, “ Yavan-āvan-indusamarē" (Do., 1. 15). Babu N. N. Vasu reads Tummāņa as Tumghāna, and identifies this with Toghril-i-taghăn Khān [J.A.S.B., XLV, 233-4; XLVII, p. 319]. The identification is open to objections. Firstly, the expression Tummāņa-prthvi-patēn." means “of the king of the Tummāņa land," and therefore Tummāņa cannot be applied to any person. Secondly, the fight with Tughān Khān took place on 13th Shawwäl, A.H. 642, or in March 1245 A.D., i.e., six or seven years after Anaŋga Bhima Dēva liad ceased to rule.

In fact, Tummāņa land was in the Central Provinces, and has been repeatedly mentioned in the inseriptions of the Cēdi kings [Ep. Ind., Vol. , I, pp. 34, 35, 40, 41, 47]. These Cādi kings being rulers of the adjoining province, Dakşinakõşala, were from time to time at war with the kings of Orissa. One of them, Ratna Dēva, is said to have defeated eren Coragaŋga. Their position is farther indicated by the statement that the fight took place in the groves on the banks of the Bhimā river at the foot of the Vindhya kills. They, too, apparently invaded Orissa, as fighting on the bank of the sea is also mentioned.

The fight with the Yavanas, mentioned in verse 15, line 15, refers probably to some inroads of Ghiyāş-ud-din 'Iwaz, the fourth Bengal ruler. Of him Tabaķāt-i-Nāşiri says:

"In short, Ghiyās-ud-din 'Iwaz, the Khalj, was a monarch worthy, just, and benevolent. The parts around about the state of Lakhaņawati, such as Jāj-nagar, the countries of Bang, Kamrüd, and Tirhut, all sent tribute to him." (pp. 587-8).

Sulțān Ghiyās-ud-din 'I waz was raised to the throne in about 608 A.H.; and the sending of tribute by Jāj-nagar is mentioned before the invasion of Bengal by I-yal-timish in 622 A.H. The invasion of Jājnagar to gather tributes thus apparently fell between 608 and 622 A.H., or between A.D. 1211 and 1224. The Mahomedans make inroads very often when the ruler of the country had just ascended the throne, or the defences of the country had been neglected by some civil war. Anaŋga Bhima came to the throne in A.D. 1211-2, and the probability is that shortly after this time the Mahomedan inroad was made. This fixes

ana

ana

varmman.

the anterior limit of the Cātēcvara inscription also. Several years would have elapsed between the minister Vişnu's fight with the Yavanas and the finishing of the temple. So, Circa 1120 A.D. may be taken as the likely date of the composition of the temple inscription.

Dr. Hoernle published in Plate VI, one gold coin (No. 22), which has got the letters “Çrī ana" and "sa" below them (Saṁvat), and two figures which I would read “24.” Dr. Hultzsch took “

to mean Anantavarmman; but as I pointed out in my letter to Dr. Hoernle, dated 10th July, 1898, , is more likely the abbreviation of a name, as Anaŋga Bhima, than an abbreviation of a common title like Ananta

If this view be correct, then No. 22' is applicable only to Anaŋga Bhima Dēva III, whose regnal years exceeded 24.

The temples of Makhaliŋgam or Crikūrmaṁ do not unfortunately contain any direct inscriptions of this king, but there are some which contain references to him. In No. 307 of Crikūrmam, dated 1172 Çaka, Pratāpa-vira-Narasimha Dēva, son of Anaŋga Bhima Dēva, was ruling. In No. 349 of Crīkārman, dated Çaka 1177, certain lands in Ippili which had been previously granted by the king Ananga Bhima, were regranted; No. 298 of Crikūrmań, dated Çaka 1205, mentions a gift of lamp by the wife of one Nșsimha Bhattāpādhyāya who was a contemporary of the king Ananga-Bhima; No. 296 of Crikūrmam, dated Çaka 1205, mentions another grant of the same lady.

In the Mõdaļā Pañji, this king is said to have been the most powerful of the whole family, to have built (in one version finished) the temple of Jagannātha, to have surveyed the whole kingdom, and to have made numerous grants. None of these statements has as yet been corroborated by inscriptions.

VIII. Nrsinha Dēva I.

[ Çaka 1160 -- Çaka 1186. ]
Only one inscription of his time has hitherto been found :-

MATERIALS.

[graphic]
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