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where there is a small Monastery he went on to Sakya Monastery where he stayed ten days. From there he went on to Tashi Lhunpo, which took five days, and stayed there for three weeks. He then went on to Ramba, where he stayed four months at the Monastery, where he read the "Kangyur" (bkah-agyur) and was admitted as a monk and given the monks dress. From there he went on to Lhasa where he arrived March 1901, and at once obtained admission as a novice (Drapa) at the Monastery of Sera, and pursued his studies there until he had to leave in June, 1902, as his identity then became known to certain persons and he had to escape so as to prevent his being taken for a foreign spy. During the time he was at Sera he practiced as a doctor in Lhasa and in this way made a number of friends amongst the influential men, and officials, and it was on this account that he was able to get away, and also to bring with him the collection of Tibetan books which he had occupied his time in making and which was the object of his visit.
He did not himself wish to leave Lhasa and wished to represent his case to the Dalai Lama that he was himself a Buddhist and had merely visited the country in disguise as a Tibetan monk for religious purposes with the object of learning the Tibetan Buddhist teaching. His friends, however, dissuaded him from doing this, as they feared his discovery as a foreigner would compromise them; as it would be held that they ought to have discovered the fact before and reported it, and it was on their advice that he at once secretly made his escape before his identity was generally known.
Mr. Ekai Kawa Gochi remained for some time in Darjeeling, during which time I saw him on several occasions. He then proceeded to again visit Kathmandu, where he spent some time, and has since returned to Japan.
The list of books, brought from Lhasa.—The list contains the names of 85 books. In the second column will be found the name of the book with a transliteration in the Roman Character. In the transliteration I have used the letter a for the prefix and the others are transliterated by their corresponding Roman letter without and diacritical marks. In the third column are given the particulars of the book. The size of the leaf, the printing press or other place that it was obtained from, and the price paid for it.
As the width of the margin of the paper left round the printed wood-block that forms each page varies considerably I have also noted the size of the actual printing on the leaf as well as the size of the leaf itself. As all Tibetan books are printed on both sides of the paper the number of pages in each case is double the number of the leaves; as
the leaf is numbered and not the page. I have also, to make the description more complete, given in each case the number of lines of print that go to the page in each book, which number is always uniform throughout the book. All Tibetan printed books are xylographs and each page forms a separate woodblock. In most cases if a book is required the intending purchaser goes to the printing press, generally attached to a Monastery, where its woodblocks are kept, and has it printed to order. Mr. Ekai Kawa Gochi obtained most of his books in this way, and he told me that he found it necessary to check the numbering of all the leaves very carefully to see that the printer had actually printed everyone; as otherwise it is a very common form of fraud to leave a large number of leaves out.
Some books for which there is a general demand are printed ready for sale and can be bought at book-shops other than the actual printing press, and wherever this is the case I have noted it in column 3.
In ordering a book to be printed the purchaser can either purchase the paper at the printing press, or, as is very often done he procures his paper elsewhere and makes it over to the press and in that case pays for the actual printing only for which the ordinary rate is two Tangkas (=12 annas) a day for the printer, without food, or one Tangka (=6 annas) a day, and food. The printer works from about 8. A.M. to about 4 P.M. and can print about 200 pages a day. The general rate, including paper is two Tangkas per fifty pages and an extra half tanka ( = 3 annas) more for a special order. I have given in each case the'price at which the book is obtainable in Lhasa. The price is given in “Tangkas," the Tibetan standard silver coin, equivalent to six annas (-T.), and I have given the equivalent in Indian money.
From columm 3 it will be seen that 14 of the books were printed at the Depung Monastery Press, 8 at the Press attached to the Palace at Potala, the Dalai Lama's residence, 7 at the Chief Printing Press and book-shop in Lhasa at Paljor Rabdan, 4 at the Pulunka Monastery, 3 at the Tengeling Monastery, 3 at Meru, 1 at Sera, and 1 at Chos-tse-ling, all monasteries in or near Lhasa.
Of the remainder, 28 are procurable ready printed, at any book-sel. lers. They are chiefly (e.g., Nos 35 to 52) cheap Religious or Devotional books, costing a few annas each, and used mostly by the Lamas, but also by the Laity. Many of these latter are written in Sanskrit, which is printed in the old form of the Sanskrit letters known as " Lan-tsha,” which is the old Svayambhu character of Magadha and always employed in Tibet, and in such case the Transliteration in Tibetan is printed, usually above the Sanskrit line and the Translation in Tibetan below the Sanskrit.
The short description of the contents of the book, in column 4, was given by Mr. Ekai Kawa Gochi himself, and my thanks are due to him for the trouble he took in stating the subject matter of each book, and also to Rai Sarat Chandra Das, Bahadur, who kindly assisted him in doing this, and dictated to Migmar Tendup what should be given as such description.
My thanks are also due to Migmar Tendup for kindly transcribing the names of the books in column 2, and taking down the description in col. 4.
21×3 Print 181 × 2. Bought
Vols. 23 ×
སྐྱབས་ མགོན་ལྔ་པ་ངག་aix lines, on good paper.
Ina-pa ngag-dbang blo-bzang rgya
The biography of the reformer Je-tsong Khá-pa
Print 18 x 2, The life of the fifth Dalai Lama named " Nág-wáng.
Total 2,427 leaves.
Printed to order at the De-pung
Same series as the preceding, and The life of the third Dalai Lama named "Sód-nam-
Gya-tsho." He was the first who really took
The life of the fourth Dalai Lama named "Yón.
This book contains the life of the first Panchhen