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النشر الإلكتروني

to suit their own sweet will. In the 1st line

should be substi

in the 2nd line. In the هزارانت for هزاران imilarlyهزارت tuted for

3rd line, the first is, and the second word is

== اشمرد اشمرت

the words

a wound. Since bol or "he counted" is the third person singular, the in and alludes to the same person. The poet says that though he (his beloved) counted more than thousands of scars, from his wounds, still the uncounted exceed those that have been counted. The last word in the 1st, 2nd, and the 4th lines

wishan is the plural of ویش - ویش or ویشه ishan, and not ویشن should be

d. It will be observed that the metre has in no way been affected.


1. Do not twist thy dishevelled hyacinths (i.e., hair),



Do not fill thy drunken narcissi (i.e., the eyes) with tears;
If thou art bent on cutting off thy love from me,

Instead of in the 2nd line

would be better, and this reading

4. Time will cut it off, do not hasten on.

I have adopted, because it is not necessary to make the beloved shed tears of blood, the mere filling up of the eyes with tears being sufficient. The is to be pronounced varini, and the second vorini, and similarvorina in the 4th line. The first is the Raji form of, and the second is derived from y voridan, to cut, sever=Persian


ly &

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1. O, strong-hearted one! thy heart does not burn for me;

2. It would not be strange if stone does not burn

3. But I will burn till I burn thy heart,

4. For green wood does not burn alone in the fire.

بسوجو نم دلت را

ترو خشك باهم میسوزد


In the 1st lines means "to take pity," but in the 3rd line Il means that "I will make your heart burn, " i.e., "make you feel." There is a proverb jbl China “green and dry wood burn together." This is made use of to express that in a general conflagration everything is consumed. The poet here alludes to this and says that he will burn himself and so inflame or consume the heart of the beloved also. The 2nd line may also be translated as: "What wonder if stone (ie., thy heart) does not burn."


1. My heart is distraught through thy love,

2. And when I strike my eyelashes together, a torrent arises;

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are ریز خیر گیر The words

4. Burning at one end; and pouring blood at the other.

are also written), the letters }, },

being all interchangeable. I have also seen the 1st line writ

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My heart is distracted from دلم در عشق خوبان گیج و ویجه : ton as follows

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1. Without thee my heart is not happy for a single moment,

2. And if I see thy face grief disappears;

3. If they distribute the grief of my heart,

4. No heart in all the world would remain without grief.


1. Thou hast chain-like (curly) locks falling upon thy face,
2. (As if) thou hast Rose and Hyacinth mingled together;
3. But when thou scatterest the strands of thy locks,

4. Thou wilt have a heart suspended from every strand of hair.


1. O may thy sun-like face-grow brighter;

2. May my heart be pierced still more by the arrow of thy love;

3. Dost thou know why thy cheek's mole is black?

4. Because, whatever is near the sun is more burnt.

The word

the singular also.

though the plural form of s is often used for


1. The breeze that comes from the roots of those locks,
2. Is more welcome to me than the perfume of hyacinths;
3. When at night I take thy thought in my arms,

4. At dawn the scent of roses arises from my bed.

In the 3rd line

should be used, as it shows the cause of the

scent of roses arising from his bed.


1. O thou, from whose two locks I string my rabab,
2. What seekest thou from this my wretched state ?
3. When thou hast no wish to be my friend,
4. Why comest thou every midnight in my dream ?
In the 3rd line I have used

which is the only correct form,
means "to

and Mr. Browne's suggestion is very proper. wish to befriend one."


1. Thou whose soft eyes are surma dyed,

2. Thou whose flourishing stature (figure) is heart attracting,

3. Thou whose musky hair (plaid) are on thy back,

4. Why askest thou me "Wherefore art thou confounded ?"

here, to rhyme with

but it is better to use the form the interrogative in the 4th line. The other words and are the

; are used alike سرمه ساهت Persian - سرمه سایه and سرمہ سائی In Raji

قضائی دلربائی

is not the 2nd person singular, as the سرمه سائي قفايه. and دلربایه same as

translator remarks on page 50, but the 3rd person singular alluding to ing the eyes; ludo means surma rubbing or surma dyed, and not "shadowed." The word is derived from a to grind, to rub, and does not mean "shadow." Mr. Browne's rendering is perfectly correct; the poet in another Quatrain of which I remember only two Küs * Lila

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ابی واجی چرا بی نام و ننگی * کسی کو عاشقه چش نام و چش ننگ : lines, says

Why askest thou me, "Wherefore art thou without name or shame." Whosoever is a lover, what is name and shame to him.' The poet means that when you have such ravishing eyes, such a lovely figure, and such musk-scented (or may be musk-coloured) hair, it is strange to ask me why I am confounded; that is, with all these forces arrayed against me it is difficult for me to keep myself safe.


1. How pleasant it is when love is reciprocal,
2. Because one-sided friendship is a trouble;

3. If Majnun had a distracted heart,


Leila's heart was still more distracted.

In the 1st line & is the correct word, as it means "how," while means "whereas" or "because." Mr. Browne is right regarding the use of the word for in the same line.


1. Come one evening and illumine my chamber;

2. Do not leave me in the affliction of the day of separation.

3. By the pair of thy eyebrow's arches I swear,

4. That I am yoked to grief since I am separated from thee.

The 4th line of Mr. Allen's edition will not scan properly, and should

از تو instead of تا از تو be

It is strange that in the note on this line, page 52, Mr. Allen gives .♬ does not mean "fever" here but "thou" or rather "thee

* = after.


1. Art thou a lion or a leopard, O Heart, O Heart?


That thou warrest ever with me, O Heart, O Heart? 3. Shouldst thou fall into my hands, I'll spill thy blood,

4. To see of what colour thou art, O Heart, O Heart.

In the 3rd line feti is the contraction as well as the dialectal

افتادن. it is the subjunctive of ; افتادی ufti and not of أنتي form of

The 4th line is not correctly rendered. means "of what colour thou art, and alludes to the heart and not to the blood; the expression, & means "of what material thou art made."

In the 3rd line

I would use

and are both correct; but in the 4th line, as it is not elegant to bring two, vāvs together, as in

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1. O, my Beauty! thou hast my heart and soul,

2. Thou hast all my apparent and hidden effects;

3. I know not from whom I have this grief (pain);

4. I only know that thou holdest the remedy.

The 2nd line will not scan correctly with, and pig is right, and so I have substituted the correct word i.

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1. Shouldst thou come, I will welcome thee with my soul,
2. Shouldst thou not come, I will burn from thy separation.
3. Whatever sorrows thou hast, lay them on my heart,

بجان ترا بجانت

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4. Whether I die of them, or be consumed by them, or bear them. From the note on page 82, on line 1, it appears that the translator has taken the word to means and translates it "by thy life,' whereas means "with my soul (welcome) thee," the being in the accusative. Then again in the note on the 3rd line he says, “i.e., the pains thou canst inflict; " but this is not what the poet means. The poet says, if you have any grief or sorrow, lay it on my heart, and care not whether I die of it, or be consumed by it, or bear up with it, i.e., I will gladly bear all thy grief and sorrow and leave thee happy and free from every care.

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1. The tulips of the hill-side last only a week,

2. The violets on the river brink last only a week;

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That the fidelity of the rosy-cheeked lasts only a week.

From the translator's note on line 1, page 54, it appears that he has read the word is "of a week's duration," with the accent on the third

But the accent is on the second یک سالگی and یک هفتگي syllable, like

syllable, and means only a week."

Sheikh Baha-ud-Din'in his Nān-o

گرکسی. گوید که از عمرت همین هفته مانده است و این گردد یقین Halwa says

Here too &ås

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a week," and not "of a week's duration.


one were to tell you that of your life, Only a week remains, and this becomes certain.'

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His other remark regarding the hamza in Jy shows that he has not read examples where poets use their license. He has evidently read it as if it consisted of four syllables, whereas in the present case, it should be read like a word of three syllables, i.e., it should be pronounced a-la-lai, and not a-la-la-ye, and thus it will not injure the metre. Innumerable examples of this may be cited from the older authors. Khakani says:

is pronounced bilai as a word بیله Here بیله. تو کرد روی مه و زهره را خجل

of two syllables and not bila-ye. It is not so in the case of where the izafat is not required at all, and so the comparison does not hold good.

In the 3rd line, the word is the correct word, being the plural of and there appears no reason to change it into an Arabic word, and then to corrupt it; such an emendation will spoil the sense of the last couplet. For the last two lines I remember having read some


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چرا جورت کشم سالان و صداهان ترا یاری بیاران - where the following two lines . هفته



"Why should I bear thy tyranny for years and months,

4. Thy friendship to friends is for a week only." Probably these two lines may be the two last lines of another Quatrain, the first two lines of which are wanting.


1. My heart is grieved (sorrowful) in thine absence,

2. My pillow is a brick and bed the earth;

3. My sin is that I love thee,

4. Yea, whosoever loves thee, this is his condition.

From every point of view the Quatrain as given by the author of the Majma-ul-Fusaha, is preferable to every other version of the same; hence my adopting it.


1. I am that taper whose tears are of fire ;

2. He who is burnt in heart, can his tears be other than this?

3. All night I burn and all day I weep,

4. Like those are my nights and such my days from thee (thy ty


J. I. 3

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