« السابقةمتابعة »
NUMISMATIC SUPPLEMENT. (With Plate III).
Note--The numeration of the articles below is continued from
p. 74 of the Journal.
I. ANCIENT INDIA.
8. The Kșaharāta Dynasty, circâ A.D. 100 ( Of. “ Indian Coins” $$77-79)
Of this dynasty which preceded that of the Western Kșatrapas as governors ( probably originally under the Saka princes of Northern India--the line of Maues, Azes, Azilises, &c.) of Surāştra and Mälwa, only one member, Nabapāna, has hitherto been certainly known from coins.
I have recently discovered another, who, I think, may have been the predecessor of Nahapāna.
Pandit Bhagvānlal Indrāji in his account of “The Western Kşarapas," edited by me in J.R.A.S., 1890, p. 643, attributes certain copper coins to Nahapāna. He notes that they bear on the reverse the symbols which appear on Nahapāna's silver coins-an arrow and a thunderbolt. They are found “in the coasting regions of Gujarāt and Kathiāwād, and also sometimes in Mālwa.” They bear on the obverse “ the Buddhist symbols, a standing deer and a dharmacakra, and also show traces of inscriptions which have not hitherto been deciphered.” (A specimen is given in his Plate, la.)
Now, the copper coinage which has been assigned with certainty to Nahapāna is rather different. An undoubted specimen, actually bearing the name of Nahapana, is given in Cunningham's Coins of Medieval India, p. 6, Pl. I, 5. No. 4 in the same plate belongs to the class described by Pandit Bhagvānlāl. On studying the six specimens of this latter class in the British Museum, I was fortunate enough to succeed in reading one of the inscriptions-the Brāhmi inscription-with certaiuty. The inscription which is found on the opposite side is certainly in Kharoşthi characters, but these are so fragmentary and so carelessly executed that without the help of this Brāhmi reading I should not have been able to suggest any restoration of the Kharoşthi inscription. We may, however, assume that, as on the coins of Nahapāna, practically the same inscription occurs in the two characters; and the fragments of the Kharoşthi inscription which remain, certainly justify us in taking this view.
The following is a description of the coins. The fragments of the inscriptions are given as they appear on the different specimens.
Obv. Arrow and Thunderbolt: Brāhmi inscription (restored) Kșaharātusa Ksatrapasa Bhūmakasa.
Rev. A Deer and a Dharmacakra, together forming what may be intended for the capital of a pillar. Kharoşthi inscription (restored) Chatrapa-Chaharatu-Bhumakaså or Chaharadasa chatrapasa Bhumakasa.
Brāhmi Inscription (Reverse). The clue to the inscription is given by a coin in the Bhagvānlāl collection, No. 70. The Brāhmi inscription on its reverse is quite clearly (1) Kşahar[a].
pasa Bhūmakasa. The name Bhūmaka is fairly clear on another specimen from the same collection ( No. 4=Pl. la. of the Pandit's article in the J.R.A.S.).
The other specimens do little to confirm this reading, and I cannot explain, either as Brāhmi or as Kharoşthi, the curious inscription on the reverse of the coin published by Çunvingham, C.M.I., Pl. I. 4.
Kharoşthi Inscription (Obverse).
rata Bhumaka [sa].
[sa]. On No. 70 of the Bhagvānlāl collection, there is a full obverse inscription in, apparently, Kharoşthi characters, but I am unable to read it. It must, no doubt, have been the same as the reverse Brāhmi inscription.
There can be no doubt that the name is Bhūmaka, and that, like Nahapāna, he takes the titles “Kșaharāta” and “ Kşatrapa.” The readings (1) and (3) show the family title Kşaharāta in the first place, the military title Ksatrapa in the second place, the two titles as well as the name being in the genitive case. The reading (2) seems to change this order, and also to denote that only the name was in the genitive
I may add that these copper coins, by reason of their fabric and their types, seem to take us one step farther back in the direction of the Saka princes of Northern India, whose governors the Kşaharātas have been supposed, on other evidence, to have been. They somewhat resemble the copper coins of Spalirises with Azes, which have for their reverse type a bow and arrow and a discus (v. Gardener, B.M. Col. p. 102, Pl. XXII., 4.')
E. J. RAPSON.
Brit: Mus: III. SULTANS OF DEHLT.
9. Shamsu-d-din Kayūmurş.
This extremely rare coin was obtained in October, 1903, nearly 40 years after the first specimen was discovered by the late Pandit Ratan Narain of. Dehli, with whose collection it passed into the possession of Mr. J. H. Durkee of New York (U.S.A.) many years ago. That coin was edited by Mr. J. G. Delmerick in the Journal of this Society for 1881, and again by Mr. J. Gibbs in the Numismatic Chronicle in 1885. The coin recently acquired is similar in type to other rupees of this period and bears the following legends
السلطان الاعظم شمس الدنيا والدين ابوالمظفر کیومرث
الامام المستعصم امير المومنين
بحضرت دهلي .
· Shamsn-d-din, the son of Muizzu-d-din Kaikubad, was only 3 years old when he was placed on the throne of Debli as the ostensible Sultan by Jalalu-d-din Firoz Shāh after the murder of the Sultan Kaikubad. Three months later when Jalālu-d-din had succeeded in consolidating his own power, the infant Sultan was also put to death. This was in the year 689 A.H.
G. B. BLEAZBY.
10. Shihabu-d-din Umar Shah.
R. Weight, 172 grains. Size, 1".0
Date, 715 A.H.
Pl. III. 2.
1 The discus is regarded by Prof. Gardener as a mere symbol on the coin; but I think the actual weapon is intended. I think it is represented also on the silver coins of Nahapāna by the round dot which always occurs in conjunction with the Arrow and Thunderbolt. ( see Cunningham, C.M.I., PI. I. 3 ; Bhagvānlā), J.R.A.S., 1890, PI. I: Rapson, J.R.A.S., 1899, PI. 1.)
This coin which is in perfect condition has the following legends enclosed in circles :
السلطان الاعظم شهاب الدنيا والحين والمظفر عمر شاه
ضرب هذه السکه بعضو دهلی في سنة خمس وعشر و سبعمائة
3 The brief history of this puppet king is told by Thomas in his Chronicles of the Pathān Kings of Dehli, pp. 176 and 177.
The first rupee of this Sultān turned up at Jaunpūr a few years ago. It was acquired by the Government of the United Provinces and is now in the Lucknow Museum. That coin, however, is in comparatively poor condition. The coin now being described was acquired subsequently at Nában (Sirmur State), and judging by its appearance cannot have been in circulation for any length of time, every letter on both sides being perfect. These two specimens in silver and a few copper coins are all the coins known of this unfortunate young Sultān.
G. B. BLEAZBY.
11. Muhammad bin Tughlak. A coin struck in memory of his father.
Pl. III. 1.
The striking of coins in the name of his father is a well-known incident in the reign of Muhammad bin Tugblak. Two such coins-one gold, the other silver-are noticed by Thomas on p. 212 of the Chron. icles. Though the name of the Mint is indistinct on the gold coin and is not recorded on the silver piece, it is probable from their appearance that the coins were issued in the Dekhan. Another coin bearing the name of Ghiyâşu-d.din Tughlak but struck after his death is described on p. 190 of the Chronicles, and the crude rendering of the word wlalamily on the reverse area, together with the absence of any distinct margin, led the author to catalogue the coin as one struck by the first Tughlak in A. H. 721. Subsequent finds have however fixed the dates of issue of this class of coin as 726 and 727, and their origin was the Dekhan, specimens being known struck at both Daulatābād and Telingāna.
The object of the present note is to draw attention to a similar gold coip struck at the capital Dehli. This coin I believe has only once been noticed-by Major F. W. Stubbs in the Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1870, p. 302. On that occasion it was
pronounced counterfeit for reasons which appear to be inconclusive The coin has as far as I know never been figured.
The legends are as follows:-
In a circle.
السلطان الغازي غیاث الدنيا والدین
تغلق شا8 السلطان ناصر امیرالمومنین
هذا السمكة بحضرة دهلي نے سنة سبع وعشرين و سبعمايه
Major Stubbs gave the following six reasons for believing the coin to be pot genuiue
This criticism is obviously due to a .نامين is written ناصر .1
mistaken assignment of the dots on the coin. The two dots which have
(2) Date in figures impossible.
These remarks refer to the figures per l in the reverse area. Major Stubbs assumes that they represent a blundered date, a different date being given in words in the margin. It is difficult to conceive that anyone who was able to imitate with such precision and intelligence the entire inscription of a coin, and must have been aware of the meaning of that inscription, should stumble through ignorance over a date in figures and for vrv should substitute the figures fri Some other explanation of these figures must, I think, be sought for. This I am unable to supply, but it is worth remembering that equally unexplained figures appear on coins of Islām Shāh Sāri, vide Chronicles No. 359, Pl. V, 190.
From the above considerations it may, I think, be assumed that the figures per I were not a blundered representation of vrv. They possibly have no connection with the date of the coin.
(4) The word wyne is omitted.