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assigned to the latter half of the 7th century. So king Madhava of our plates cannot be later than this period.
The characters employed in the Buguļa plates are stated by Kielhorn to belong to the same variety. But as neither photographs nor facsimiles of the plates are published with his paper, I cannot say whether the characters used in the two records are exactly alike.
King Mādhava is stated in the new plates to have sprung from Sailodbhava's lineage, to have exercised sovereignty over the whole of Kalinga, and to have been a worshipper of the god Maheśvara. He is distinctly described as the son of Yaśobbīta and grandson of Sainyabhita. Dr. Kielhorn considers Mādhava to be the son of Saingabhita. He was perhaps led to this conclusion by the fact that after having described some of his predecessors in succession, the Buguda plates introduce Mādhavavarman's name just after Sainyabhīta. But they do not state the relationship between the two. So this circumstance simply means that Mādbava was a descendant of Sainyabbita, but not necessarily his son. The new plates, although they give the names of three generations only, are clear on this point and distinctly state that Mādhava was the son of Yaśoblita avd grandson of Sainyabhita. The revised genealogy accordingly stands thus :Through Pulindasena's prayer was createdSailodbhava, the founder of the dynasty
Sainyabbīta 1, Raņabhīta’s son :
Sainyabhita II, Yaśobhīta's son are:
Yaśobhita II, Sainyabhita's son
1 Mādhavarāja, Mādhavendra or Mādhavavarman, Yaśo
bhīta's son. We need pot doubt the identity of Madhava of the new charter with Mādhavendra or Mādhavavarman of the Buguda plates. Both charters issue from the same place Kongoda, or Kaingoda. In both Mādhava is described as a descendant of Sailobdhava and a ruler of Kalinga. The village granted by the Buguda plates was situated in the Guļda vişaya or district. I have not been able to identify the localities mentioned in the two charters. Many villages in Ganjam and the neighbouring districts have names either beginning or ending in the form"guda" or“ guda. One of the two charters was found at Buguda; another village very near Buguda is named Kariguda; another is “ Majaguda." Bariguda, Galiguda and Naruguda are in Despalla. A village near Narsingpur is called Kanagud. This last name is very near to the name Kongoda or Kaingoda. However, in the absence of other proofs, we cannot be sure that they represent the same place. But although the identification of the particular localities is difficult, yet from the frequent occurrence of the form "guda” in the modern names of the villages of this part of the country, as well as from the fact that the two sets of plates have been 'found, one in Ganjam and the other in Khurda, we may conclude with much probability that both these districts formed parts of the possessions of King Mādhava.
The seal contains the name of Sainyabhita ; this shows that Mādhava was still using his grandfather's seal or, more probably, that he had a second name, Sainyabhīta. The figure of a bull in the seal is significant, as Siva was the god specially worshipped by this dynasty.
SUBSTANCE. Hail! From the victorious camp at the residence of Kongoda King Mādhava,—who is the grandson of Sainyabhịta and son of Yaśobhita, who is a devote worshipper of Maheśvara's feet, who belonged to the Sailodbhava dynasty, who has got sovereignty over the whole of Kalinga,-being in good health and having duly honoured all the present and future recipients of the royal favour (such as Sāmantas, Mahāsāmantas, Mahārājas, Rājaputras, Daņdanāyakas, Kumārāmātyas, Uparikas, Vişayapatis, and their employés], informs them thus :
“Be it known to you that for the increase of the religious merit of our parents and ourselves, we give “ Kumbhāracche 1 " in the Arahaņņa or (Arahaņņa) village attached to the district of Thoraņa, by means of a copper-plate charter to Prajāpatisvāmin, of the family of Vatsa and a student of the Kāņva branch of the Vājasaneyi texts. So out of respect for religion, no one should obstruct him in its lawful enjoyment as long as the sun and the moon endure."
Next follow three benedictory and imprecatory verses.
1 Some three letters are lost after cch. I suppose the word kumbhàrachne
signifies a part of the village, and that it was the part where kumbhāras or potters lived. It was this portion only that was granted by this charter.
पलक्षितक्षमानयविनयविक्रमस्य प्रतापवारितारिस्यैन्य'. स्य श्रीसैन्यभौतस्य पैत्त्र प्रस्तविपुलामलयशसः
सततमयशोभीतस्य श्रीमती यशोभीतस्यात्मजो
Second Plate (1st side). तविददिदग्धजनसमूहो निजभुजवलावलेपावमि[.००००] स्तपर्यन्तसामन्तशिरोमणिमरीचिसंमूर्छितच[र(ण).००० च्छिन्नान्तरेतरारातिवर्गो यथाक्रमप्ररत्तसमनुरञ्जिव महानिपानमिव सर्वसत्वैर्यथेठमुपभुज्यमा(न)..] वभोगसारसत्वसारप्रकर्षप्रकाशित लोद्भवान्ववाय[(उ).] नतसकलकलिङ्गाधिपत्यः सकलकलावाप्तकौमूर्त व जगता प्रमदः प्ररत्तचक्रश्चकधर इव भगवान्माधवः
Second Plate (2nd side). 15. श्रीमाधवराजः कुशली थोरणविषये श्रीसामन्तमहासाम16. न्तमहाराजराजपुत्त्रदण्ड दण्डनायककुमारामात्योपरिकवि[घ 17. यपतितदायुक्तकादौनाजप्रसादोपजीविनः सकरणं . ] 18. र्तमानभविष्यतो यथाहं सत्कृत्योपदर्शयति भवतु००° 19. तां विदितमेतद्विषयसंवहारहखग्रामे कुम्भारच्छे...] 20. द्वयं वत्मसगोलवाजसनेयिकाण्वप्रजापतिखामिने 10 21. जोरात्मनश्च पुख्याभिवृद्धये ताम्बपट्टस्थित्य [...] 1 Read सैन्य. 2 Read पोच. 8 Read भगवमाहेश्वरचरणयुगलैकशरणा
5 The reading might have been वनमितसमस्त 6 Probably कौमुद इव
I Cancel the first दण्ड 8 The letter was probably a 9 The last two letters were probably ha 10 The last three letters were Ataifa
J. I. 37.
4 Read i instead of i,
ll Read qua
तदस्याचन्द्रार्ककालं यथास्थितिभुञ्जानस्य धम्मगौरवानकेन'
1 The last letter but two should be doubled #
• For फलः read फलम्