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assigned to the latter half of the 7th century. So king Mâdhava of our plates cannot be later than this period.
The characters employed in the Buguḍa plates are stated by Kielhorn to belong to the same variety. But as neither photographs nor facsimiles of the plates are published with his paper, I cannot say whether the characters used in the two records are exactly alike.
King Madhava is stated in the new plates to have sprung from Sailodbhava's lineage, to have exercised sovereignty over the whole of Kalinga, and to have been a worshipper of the god Maheśvara. He is distinctly described as the son of Yasobhita and grandson of Sainyabhīta. Dr. Kielhorn considers Madhava to be the son of Sainyabhita. He was perhaps led to this conclusion by the fact that after having described some of his predecessors in succession, the Buguḍa plates introduce Madhavavarman's name just after Sainyabhita. But they do not state the relationship between the two. So this circumstance simply means that Madhava was a descendant of Sainyabhīta, but not necessarily his son. The new plates, although they give the names of three generations only, are clear on this point and distinctly state that Madhava was the son of Yasobhita and grandson of Sainyabhita. The revised genealogy accordingly stands thus :—
Through Pulindasena's prayer was created—
Sailodbhava, the founder of the dynasty
Raṇabhita, (the descendant
Sainyabhita I, Ranabhita's son 7:
Yasobhita I, Sainyabhita's descendant GTA:
Sainyabhita II, Yasobhita's son age:
Yasobhita II, Sainyabhita's son
Mādhavarāja, Mādhavendra or Madhavavarman, Yasobhita's son.
We need not doubt the identity of Madhava of the new charter with Madhavendra or Madhavavarman of the Buguḍa plates. Both charters issue from the same place Kongoda, or Kaingoda. In both Mādhava is described as a descendant of Sailobdhava and a ruler of Kalinga. The village granted by the Buguḍa plates was situated in the Guḍḍa viṣaya or district. I have not been able to identify the localities mentioned in the two charters. Many villages in Ganjam and the neighbouring districts have names either beginning or ending in the
form "guda" or "guda." One of the two charters was found at Buguḍa ; another village very near Buguḍa is named Kariguda; another is "Majaguda." Bariguda, Galiguda and Naruguda are in Despalla. A village near Narsingpur is called Kanagud. This last name is very near to the name Kongoda or Kaingoda. However, in the absence of other proofs, we cannot be sure that they represent the same place. But although the identification of the particular localities is difficult, yet from the frequent occurrence of the form "guḍa" in the modern names of the villages of this part of the country, as well as from the fact that the two sets of plates have been found, one in Ganjam and the other in Khurda, we may conclude with much probability that both these districts formed parts of the possessions of King Mādhava.
The seal contains the name of Sainyabhita; this shows that Mādhava was still using his grandfather's seal or, more probably, that he had a second name, Sainyabhita. The figure of a bull in the seal is significant, as Siva was the god specially worshipped by this dynasty.
Hail! From the victorious camp at the residence of Kongoda King Madhava,-who is the grandson of Sainyabhita and son of Yasobhita, who is a devote worshipper of Maheśvara's feet, who belonged to the Sailodbhava dynasty, who has got sovereignty over the whole of Kalinga,—being in good health and having duly honoured all the present and future recipients of the royal favour [such as Sāmantas, Mahāsāmantas, Mahārājas, Rajaputras, Daṇḍanāyakas, Kumārāmātyas, Uparikas, Visayapatis, and their employés], informs them thus:
"Be it known to you that for the increase of the religious merit of our parents and ourselves, we give “Kumbhāracchel" in the Arahaṇṇa or (Arabaṇṇa) village attached to the district of Thoraṇa, by means of a copper-plate charter to Prajāpatisvāmin, of the family of Vatsa and a student of the Kanva branch of the Vājasaneyi texts. So out of respect for religion, no one should obstruct him in its lawful enjoyment as long as the sun and the moon endure.”
Next follow three benedictory and imprecatory verses.
स्वस्ति जयस्कन्धावारात्कोङ्गोदवासकात्मक लक्षमा (मा) तलो
1 Some three letters are lost after cch. I suppose the word kumbhārachhe signifies a part of the village, and that it was the part where kumbhāras or potters lived. It was this portion only that was granted by this charter.
स्य श्रीसैन्यभीतस्य पैत्त्र' प्रसृत विपुलामलयशसः
सततमयशोभीतस्य श्रीमतो यशोभीतस्यात्मजो
भगवंमहश्वरचरणयुगलेकशरण्यः शैशव एव विद्याचतुष्ठ
याभ्यासोन्मीलित सहजप्रज्ञातिशयावगत समस्ता-
Second Plate (1st side).
तविद्यद्विदग्धजनसमूहो निजभुजवलावले पावमि [००००० ] स्वपर्य्यन्तसामन्तशिरोमणिमरोचिसंमूर्च्छितच[र(ण)००००] च्छिन्नान्तरेतरारातिवे यथाक्रमप्रवृत्तसमनुरञ्जित [•••••••] महानिपानमिव सर्व्वसत्वैर्यथेष्टमुपभुज्यमा[(न)००] वभोगसारसत्वसारप्रकर्षप्रकाशितशैलोद्भवान्ववाय[(उ)०] नतसकलकलिङ्गाधिपत्यः सकलकलावाप्तकौ मूर्त्त
व जगता प्रमदः प्रवृत्तचक्रश्चक्कुधर इव भगवान्माधवः
श्रीमाधवराजः कुशली थोरणविषये श्रीसामन्तमद्दासाम-
तदस्याचन्द्रार्ककालं यथास्थितिभुञ्जानस्य धम्मगौरवानकेन'
नूपालिता यस्य यस्य यदा भूमि तस्य तस्य तदा फलः * ।
न्त्यं परदानानुपालनं । खदत्तां परदत्तां वा यो हरेव वसुन्धरां स
1 The last letter but two should be doubled
8 Read धर्म्मगौरवान्न केन चिद्विघातः कार्य्यः
8 For भूति नस्य read भूमिस्तस्य
6 For व read वः
6 For f read
4 For फलः read फलम्