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small guardhouses, in which he placed his men. A large cannon, said to throw a ball weighing a Shāhjahānī maund,1 was sent to him, being escorted with great ceremony from Palwal to Hoḍal, whence it was taken on to Thun by Nusrat Yar Khan, the Deputy Governor of Agrah. Three hundred maunds of gunpowder, one hundred and fifty maunds of lead and five hundred rockets were ordered to be sent from the arsenal at Ãgrah. At first 'Abd-us-samad Khan, Governor of Lahor, was recalled from the Panjab, but after he had reached Dihli, the idea of sending him was abandoned, and Sayyad Muzaffar Khan, Khan Jahan, maternal uncle of the two Sayyads and then Governor of Ajmer, was summoned to take his place. The Sayyad was despatched to Thun on the 30th Muharram 1129 H. (13th June, 1717).

In spite of the investment of Thun, the roads were not cleared of robbers. The other zamindars and villagers took Caraman's part; they pillaged travellers and plundered villages. For instance, a caravan of merchants arrived at Hoḍal, consisting of thirteen hundred carts loaded with leather bottles full of clarified butter. Instead of giving the usual notice to Sanjar Khan, the owners started for Palwal, in the belief that their own one thousand matchlockmen would suffice. When two or three kos from Hoḍal, they were surrounded, the armed guards threw down their guns and fled, while the Jāts and other plunderers drove off the carts into the neighbouring villages. About twenty lakhs' worth of property, as the owners asserted, had been taken. Sanjar Khan soon reached the spot with his troops, but he was afraid to enter the villages, because they were in the jāgīrs of the Wazir, Qutbul-mulk, and of Khan Daurān.8

Rajah Jai Singh Sawãe was never distinguished as a soldier or general in the field, and in spite of all he could do, the siege dragged on for twenty months. The rains of 1717 were very late in coming, prices rose very high, and great expense fell upon the Rājah in bringing supplies from his own country of Amber. In Şafar 1130 H. (January 1718), the Rajah reported that he had many encounters with the Jāṭs, in which he had overcome them, but owing to support given to them at

Atlas Sheet No. 50; Farīdābād, Indian Atlas, Sheet No. 49 S.E.; Narwar, Thornton, 685, 210 m. S. of Dihli, the Narwar Rajah was a Kachwāha; Bondi, Thornton, 1410, 245 m. S.W. of Dihli; Kotah, Thornton, 525, 265 m. S. of Dihli, Palwal, Indian Atlas, Sheet No. 49 S.E.

1 The maund or, more properly, man, is of about 80 pounds.

2 'Abd-uş-şamad Khān reached Dihli on the 12th Muharram, Sayyad Khan Jahān on the 25th, (Kāmwar Khān, 169). Khāfĩ Khan, II, 777, says, Sayyad Khan Jahān delayed two or three months outside the city before he finally started.

8 Kāmwar Khan, 168, 169, 175,

Court, they were not inclined to yield. And, no doubt, the presence of Khān Jahān, a near relation to the Wazir, caused a division of authority which was fatal to success. At length Curāman made overtures to Qutb-ul-mulk through his agent at Dihli, offering a tribute of thirty lakhs of rupees to the Government and a present of twenty lakhs for the minister himself. Thereupon Qutb-ul-mulk espoused the Jat's cause. He represented to Farrukhsiyar that Rajah Jai Singh had received a large amount of money and that the monthly expenses were very heavy. Yet, although twenty months had elapsed, no definite result had been arrived at. Very reluctantly Farrukhsiyar consented to the terms offered. Sayyad Khan Jahān was written to, directing him to bring Curaman to Court, with his sons and brothers' sons, after having protected the whole of his property from pillage. At the same time a flattering farman was despatched to Rājah Jai Singh, thanking him for his exertions, informing him that Curaman had made overtures which had been accepted, and that all hostilities must cease. By this time Rajah Jai Singh believed that victory was within his grasp, and now, by this negociation over his head, the whole fruit of his labour was taken from him! Although inwardly raging, he obeyed orders, withdrew his men, and raised the siege.1

Qutb-ul-mulk's ill-will to Rājah Jai Singh is said to have arisen in the following way. When the Rajah first came to Farrukhsiyar's court, he found himself very favourably received by the new Emperor. In former reigns a noble, when he found the sovereign gracious to him, never thought of paying court to anyone else. Believing himself secure in the Emperor's good graces, Rājah Jai Singh neglected to ask for the support and favour of Qutb-ul-mulk. The Wazir resented this neglect. He was further vexed about the campaign against Curāman, a matter on which his advice had not been asked. Thus he privately applied himself to prevent the Rājah from reaping the reward of his undertaking. He instructed Khāu Jahān, his kinsman, accordingly, and it is said that Curaman was secretly aided with supplies of food and powder. After more than eighteen months of exertion, nothing had been effected. Farrukhsiyar grew angry, as he believed the conquest to be an easy one; and on several occasions, Qutb-ul-mulk made covert allusions to the effect that the task was one beyond Jai Singh's strength. In the end Curāman's proposals were brought forward and accepted as already stated."

On the 10th Jamādī I, 1130 H. (10th April, 1718) Khān Jahān

1 Shiū Dās' 14b, 15b (where there is a copy of the Hasb-u-l ḥukm, and 15a (copy of Farman), Khāfĩ Khãn, II, 777, Mirzā Muḥammad, 352.

? Mirza Muḥammad, 352,

J. I. 38.

arrived at Dihli with Curaman and his nephew, Rupa. They went first to visit Qutb-ul-mulk, which angered Farrukhsiyar very much. On the 19th (19th April, 1718) the formal presentation to the Emperor took place, the introduction being made by Qutb-ul-mulk. Farrukhsiyar granted this audience very ungraciously, and absolutely refused to see Curaman a second time. Two days afterwards Sayyad Khan Jahan, in return for his services, received the addition to his titles of the word "Bahādur" and was promoted to 5,000 horse. On the 30th (30th April, 1718) it was settled through Qutb-ul-mulk that the Jaț leader should pay fifty lakhs of rupees in cash and goods, to be liqui dated by instalments. Rajah Jai Singh and Mahārão Bhim Singh returned to Dihli from Thun on the 29th Jamadi II, (29th May, 1718)1


July 1715-April 1718.

With the return to court, on the 11th Jamādi II, 1127 H. (13th June 1715), of Nizām-ul-mulk, after his supercession by Husain 'Ali Khān in the government of the Dakhin, the plots against the two brothers once more commenced. Nizam-ul-mulk was angry at losing the Dakhin. This is betrayed by the fact that when he was on his march to Dihlī, although Husain 'Ali Khān passed him at a distance of only a few miles, he failed to visit the latter. According to the customs of the country this was most disrespectful, Husain 'Ali Khan being his superior in rank. At court Nizam-ul-mulk, who had been trained in the school of 'Alamgir, found it difficult to remain on good terms with the men in Farrukhsiyar's confidence, and when in Jamadi I, 1129 H. (April 1717), he was made faujdār of the Murādābād chaklah, he elected to proceed there in person, instead of appointing a deputy.


During these two years (1715-17) the Emperor started on many hunting expeditions, of which the principal object was supposed to be the finding an opportunity to make away with 'Abdullah Khāu. Farrukhsiyar was absent from Dihli for a month, from the 21st Rajab to the 25th Sha'ban 1127 H. (22nd July-25th August 1715), being then forced to return by illness. It was during this expedition that the secret orders already spoken of were issued to Dāūd Khan to resist Ḥusain ‘Ali Khan, Nizām-ul-mulk having been taken into council for this purpose. 'Abdullah Khān, during the interval, enlisted fresh troops and prepared to defend himself. Since, after waiting a month, no

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I Kāmwar Khăn, 177, Khafi Khăn, II, 777.

2 Nizām-ul-mulk returned to Court on the 29th September, 1718, see forward Section 28. Kamwar Khan, 156, Mirzā Muḥammad, 393.

3 His principal halting-places had been the Qutb, Sarãe Bādlī, and Pānīpat.

news came from Dāūd Khān, and Farrukhsiyar's ailment had increased, he was forced to return to Dihli. Then on the 10th Shawwal 1127 H. (8th October, 1715) came the report from the Dakhin that on the 8th Ramazan (6th September, 1715) Daud Khan, Panni, had been defeated and slain by Ḥusain ‘Ali Khan near Burhanpur. Four days afterwards (12th October, 1715) ‘Abdullah Khan, who had been a great deal absent from darbar, presented himself at audience, laid offerings before the Emperor, and congratulated him upon the recent victory over the rebel, Dāūd Khăn. False speeches were made and lying compliments exchanged between Emperor and Wazir. The secret cause of Dāūd Khān's resistance was already known to the Wazir, and the seeds of fresh illwill had been sown in both their hearts. One story is that Farrukhsiyar, in Qutb-ul-mulk's presence, said it was a pity that such a brave man as Dāūd Khan should have been slain. To this the Wazir retorted: "I suppose, if my brother had been slain instead, it would have been a good thing and acceptable to your Majesty ?"

It seems that after Dāūd Khan's death, his belongings fell into the hands of Husain 'Ali Khan. Among these the Sayyad's servants found several letters from Khan Dauran, and an imperial farman granting the Government of the Dakhin to Dāūd Khān. These papers were sent to Qutb-ul-mulk, who began at once to raise troops and prepared for resistance. Khān Daurān was deputed to conciliate him. At their interview, Qutb-ul-mulk complained of the parcel of beggars' sons, newly risen in the world, who employed their time in slander and detraction. What good could result? Khān Daurāu replied, "Who is the wretched creature? No man worthy the name of mau resorts to slander." Qutb-ul-mulk placed in his hand the original letters to Dāūd Khān, and said: "Look at these, who is the writer ?" Kḥān Dāūran unfolded them and began to read. As he did so, the sweat stood on his face like drops of dew, and his face flushed a deep red. After a moment's silence, he began a defence founded on obedience to the Emperor's orders. "When his sovereign ordered, how could he dare to disobey?" In short, he talked much, but was encountered by Qutb-ul-mulk at every turn, until he was reduced to silence and took his departure.


Part of the compact which ended the first quarrel between the Emperor and his minister, was the dismissal from court of Mir Jumlah, who was appointed governor of Patnah 'Azīmābād. He left Dihli in

1 Siyar-ul-Mutākharīn, 29, Briggs, 126, Kâmwar Khân, 157, 158, Mīrzā Muḥammad, 204.

Zū-l-Ḥijjah 1126 H. (December, 1714), and his doings at Patnah will be spoken of when we come to deal with events in the provinces. Suffice it to say here, that owing to his reckless mismanagement, Mir Jumlah was soon unable to meet the pay of the large and turbulent force of Mughals that he had taken with him to Patnah. Partly to escape from their demands, and partly, as is believed, in obedience to a secret letter from Farrukhsiyar, he prepared to leave his government and return to Dihli.1 As far as Benares he came openly, but at that place, leaving everyone behind, he started for Dihli in a covered litter such as is used by women. In nine days he was at Dihli, which he entered secretly during the night of the 22nd Muharram 1128 H. (16th January, 1716). He had left no time for the Wazir to hear of his starting or forbid his coming. Rumours of his arrival spread through the city, and Farrukhsiyar, when made aware of it the next morning, expressed no disapproval. It was currently believed that, in reality, he was more pleased than he dared to show,&

When Qutb-ul-Mulk learnt that Mir Jumlah was again in Dihli, he went at once to the Emperor. Farrukhsiyar swore the most solemn oaths that he had not sent for the man. To this Qutb-ul-mulk answered that whatever His Majesty might wish was no doubt right and proper, but he might look on the speedy return of Husain 'Ali Khan as an absolute certainty. The Emperor, greatly frightened at the prospect, sent officers with peremptory orders to Mir Jumlah to withdraw to Lāhor.3

Mir Jumlah procrastinated, and thus day after day passed. At length, either of themselves or at his instigation, his Mughal troops, seven or eight thousand in number, broke into revolt. They said that the whole of their pay was still due from the treasury, and the proper person to represent them was Mir Jumlah, their commander, and until their arrears were paid, they would not allow him to stir one step. The houses of Muhammad Amin Khan, second Bakhshi, and of Khan Daurān,

1 The Aḥwāl-i-khawāqīn, 118a, seems to say that by this time Mīr Jumlah had been removed from his appointment, and made instead faujdär of Benares.

? Word of Mir Jumlah's arrival was brought to Mirza Muḥammad that same night by his relation, Mḥd Mir, who had been in the Nawab's service at Paṭnah, Mirza Muḥammad, 237, Wheeler, 178.

3 Mirzā Muḥammad, 243. The account in the Aḥwal-i-khawāqin, 118b, differs from all others. There we are told that from Farīdābād, a distance of 10 kos from Dihli, Mir Jumlah petitioned for an audience. Angry at Mir Jumlah's leaving his post without orders, Farrukhsiyar despatched mace-bearers with orders to conduct the fugitive to the fortress of Gwaliyār, and bring back a receipt from the commandant. Qutb-ul-mulk and others then interceded, the offender was pardoned, but no audience was granted. At length, he was ordered to withdraw to his estates.

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