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small guardhouses, in which he placed his men. A large cannon, said to throw a ball weighing a Shāhjahāni maund,' was sent to him, being escorted with great ceremony from Palwal to Hodal, whence it was taken on to Thũn by Nusrat Yār Khān, the Deputy Governor of Agrah. Three hundred maunds of gunpowder, one hundred and fifty maunds of lead and five hundred rockets were ordered to be sent from the arsenal at Āgrab. At first 'Abd-uş-samad Khān, Governor of Lāhor, was recalled from the Panjāb, but after he had reached Dihli, the idea of sending him was abandoned, and Sayyad Muzaffar Khān, Khān Jahān, maternal uncle of the two Sayyads and then Governor of Ajmer, was summoned to take his place. The Sayyad was despatched to Thūn on the 30th Muharram 1129 H. (13th June, 1717).*

In spite of the investment of Thūn, the roads were not cleared of robbers. The other zamindārs and villagers took Curāman's part; they pillaged travellers and plundered villages. For instance, a caravan of merchants arrived at Hodal, consisting of thirteen hundred carts loaded with leather bottles full of clarified butter. Instead of giving the usual notice to Sanjar Khān, the owners started for Palwal, in the belief that their own one thousand matchlockmen would suffice. When two or three kos from Hodal, they were surrounded, the armed guards threw down their guns and fled, while the Jāts and other plunderers drove off the carts into the neighbouring villages. About twenty lakhs' worth of property, as the owners asserted, had been taken. Sanjar Khãn soon reached the spot with his troops, but he was afraid to enter the villages, because they were in the jagīrs of the Wazir, Qutbul-mulk, and of Khān Daurān.

Rājah Jai Singh Sawāe was never distinguished as a soldier or general in the field, and in spite of all he could do, the siege dragged on for twenty months. The rains of 1717 were very late in coming, prices rose very high, and great expense fell upon the Rājah in bringing supplies from his own country of Amber. In Şafar 1130 H. (January 1718), the Rajah reported that he had many encounters with the Jāts, in which he had overcome them, but owing to support given to them at

Atlas Sheet No. 50; Farīdābād, Indian Atlas, Sheet No. 49 S.E.; Narwar, Thornton, 685, 210 m. S. of Dihlī, the Narwar Rājah was a Kachwāha; Bondī, Thornton, 1410, 245 m. S.W. of Dihlī; Kotah, Thornton, 525, 265 m. S. of Dihlī, Palwal, Indian Atlas, Sheet No. 49 S.E.

1 The maund or, more properly, man, is of about 80 pounds.

% 'Abd-uş-şamad Khān reached Dihli on the 12th Muharram, Sayyad Khān Jahān on the 25th, (Rāmwar Khān, 169). Khālī Khān, II, 777, says, Sayyad Khan Jahan delayed two or three months outside the city before he finally started.

8 Kāmwar Khān, 168, 169, 175,

Court, they were not inclined to yield. And, no doubt, the presence of Khān Jahān, a near relation to the Wazir, caused a division of authority which was fatal to success. At length Curāman made overtures to Qutb-ul-mulk through his agent at Dihli, offering a tribute of thirty lakhs of rupees to the Government and a present of twenty lakhs for the minister himself. Thereupon Qutb-ul-mulk espoused the Jāt's cause. He represented to Farrukhsiyar that Rājah Jai Singh had received a large amount of money and that the monthly expenses were very heavy. Yet, although twenty months had elapsed, no definite result had been arrived at. Very reluctantly Farrukhsīyar consented to the terms offered. Sayyad Khān Jahān was written to, directing him to bring Curāman to Court, with his sons and brothers' sons, after having protected the whole of his property from pillage. At the same time a flattering farmān was despatched to Rājah Jai Singh, thanking him for his exertions, informing him that Curāman had made overtures which had been accepted, and that all hostilities must cease. By this time Rājah Jai Singh believed that victory was within his grasp, and now, by this negociation over his head, the whole fruit of his labour was taken from him! Although inwardly raging, he obeyed orders, withdrew his men, and raised the sięge.]

Qutb-ul-mulk's ill-will to Rājah Jai Singh is said to have arisen in the following way. When the Rajah first came to Farrukhsiyar's court, he found himself very favourably received by the new Emperor. In former reigns a noble, when he found the sovereign gracious to him, never thought of paying court to anyone else. Believing himself secure in the Emperor's good graces, Rājah Jai Singh neglected to ask for the support and favour of Qutb-ul-mulk. The Wazir resented this neglect. He was further vexed about the campaign against Curāman, a matter on which his advice had not been asked. Thus he privately applied himself to prevent the Rājah from reaping the reward of his undertaking. He instructed Khāu Jahān, his kinsman, accordingly, and it is said that Curāman was secretly aided with supplies of food and powder. After more than eighteen months of exertion, nothing had been effected. Farrukhsiyar grew angry, as he believed the conquest to be an easy one; and on several occasions, Qutb-ul-mulk made covert allusions to the effect that the task was one beyond Jai Singh's strength. In the end Curāman's proposals were brought forward and accepted as already stated.

On the 10th Jamādi I, 1130 H. (1.0th April, 1718) Khān Jahān

1 Shiū Dās' 14b, 15b (where there is a copy of the Hasb-u-l ħukm, and 158 (copy of Farmān), Khāfi Khān, II, 777, Mirzā Muhammad, 352, Y Mirzā Muhammad, 352.

J. I. 38.

arrived at Dihli with Curāman and his nephew, Rūpā. They went first to visit Qutb-ul-mulk, which angered Farrukhsiyar very much. On the 19th (19th April, 1718) the formal presentation to the Emperor took place, the introduction being made by Qatb-ul-mulk. Farrukhsiyar granted this audience very ungraciously, and absolutely refused to see Curāman a second time. Two days afterwards Sayyad Kbān Jahān, in return for his services, received the addition to his titles of the word “ Bahadur" and was promoted to 5,000 horse. On the 30th (30th April, 1718) it was settled through Qutb-ul-mulk that the Jāg leader should pay fifty laklıs of rupees in cash and goods, to be liquidated by instalments. Rājah Jai Singh and Māhārão Bhim Singh returned to Dihli from Thūn on the 29th Jamādi II, (29th May, 1718)!


July 1715-April 1718. With the return to court, on the 11th Jamādi II, 1127 H. (13th June 1715), of Nizām-ul-mulk, after his supercession by Husain 'Ali Khan in the government of the Dakhin, the plots against the two brothers once more commenced. Nizām-ul-mulk was angry at losing the Dakhin. This is betrayed by the fact that when he was on his march to Dihli, although Husain 'Ali Khān passed him at a distance of only a few miles, he failed to visit the latter. According to the customs of the country this was most disrespectful, Įusain 'Ali Khan being his superior in rank. At court Nizām-ul-mulk, who had been trained in the school of 'Alamgir, found it difficult to remain on good terms with the men in Farrukhsiyar's confidence, and when in Jamādi I, 1129 H. (April 1717), he was made faujdār of the Murādābād chaklah, he elected to proceed there in person, instead of appointing a deputy.s

During these two years (1715-17) the Emperor started on many hunting expeditions, of which the principal object was supposed to be the finding an opportunity to make away with 'Abdullah Khān. Farrukhsiyar was absent from Dihli for a month, from the 21st Rajab to the 25th Sha'bān 1127 H. (22nd July-25th August 1715), being then forced to return by illness. It was during this expedition that the secret orders already spoken of were issued to Dāūd Khān to resist Husain 'Ali Khan, Nizām-ul-mulk having been taken into council for this purpose. 'Abdullah Khān, during the interval, enlisted fresh troops and prepared to defend himself. Since, after waiting a month, no

1 Kãmwar Khăn, 177, Khafi Khan, II, 777.

% Nizâm-ul-mulk returned to Court on the 29th September, 1718, see forward Section 28. Kåmwar Khān, 156, Mirzā Muhammad, 393.

3 His principal halting-places had been the Qutb, Sarãe Bādlī, and Pānīpat.

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news came from Dāūd Khān, and Farrukhsiyar's ailment had increased, he was forced to return to Dihli. Then on the 10th Shawwāl 1127 H. (8th October, 1715) came the report from the Dakhin that on the 8th Ramazān (6th September, 1715) Dāūd Khān, Panni, had been defeated and slain by Husain 'Ali Khān near Burhānpur. Four days afterwards (12th October, 1715) 'Abdullah Khan, who had been a great deal absent from darbūr, presented himself at audience, laid offerings before the Emperor, and congratulated him upon the recent victory over the rebel, Dāūd Khān. False speeches were made and lying compliments exchanged between Emperor and Wazir. The secret cause of Dāūd Khān's resistance was already known to the Wazir, and the seeds of fresh illwill had been sown in both their hearts. One story is that Farrukhsiyar, in Qutb-ul-mulk's presence, said it was a pity that such a brave man as Dāūd Khān should have been slain. To this the Wazir retorted: suppose,


my brother had been slain instead, it would have been a good thing and acceptable to your Majesty ?”!

It seems that after Dāūd Khān's death, his belongings fell into the hands of Husain ‘Ali Khan. Among these the Sayyad's servants found several letters from Khān Daurān, and an imperial farmān granting the Gorernment of the Dakhin to Dāūd Khān. These papers were sent to Qutb-ul-mulk, who began at once to raise troops and prepared for resistance. Khān Daurān was deputed to conciliate him. At their interview, Qutb-ul-mulk complained of the parcel of beggars' sons, newly risen in the world, who employed their time in slander and detraction, What good could result? Khān Daurāu replied, "Who is the wretched creature ? No man worthy the name of mau resorts to slander." Qutb-ul-mulk placed in his hand the original letters to Dāūd Khān, and said : Look at these, who is the writer ?” Khān Dāūran unfolded them and began to read. As he did so, the sweat stood on his face like drops of dew, and his face flushed a deep red. After a moment's silence, he began a defence founded on obedience to the Emperor's orders. “When his sovereign ordered, low could he dare to disobey?" In short, he talked much, but was encountered by Qutb-ul-mulk at every turn, until he was reduced to silence and took his departure.


Part of the compact which ended the first quarrel between the Emperor and his minister, was the dismissal from court of Mir Jumlab, who was appointed governor of Patnah 'Azimābād. He left Dihli in

1 Sigat-tu- Moutākhai, 29, Briggs, 126, Kimwar Khăn, 157, 168, Mirza Muhammad, 204.

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Zū-1-Hijjah 1126 H. (December, 1714), and his doings at Patnah will be spoken of when we come to deal with events in the provinces. Suffice it to say here, that owing to his reckless mismanagement, Mir Jumlah was soon unable to meet the pay of the large and turbulent force of Mughals that he had taken with him to Patnah. Partly to escape from their demands, and partly, as is believed, in obedience to a secret letter from Farrukhsiyar, he prepared to leave his government and return to Dihli. As far as Benares he came openly, but at that place, leaving everyone behind, he started for Dihli in a covered litter such as is used by women. In nine days he was at Dibli, which he entered secretly during the night of the 22nd Maharram 1128 H. (16th January, 1716). He had left'no time for the Wazir to hear of his starting or forbid his coming. Rumours of his arrival spread through the city, and Farrukhsiyar, when made aware of it the next morning, expressed no disapproval. It was currently believed that, in reality, he was more pleased than he dared to show.?

When Qutb-ul-Mulk learnt that Mir Jumlah was again in Dihli, he went at once to the Emperor. Farrukhsiyar swore the most solemn oaths that he had not sent for the man. To this Qutb-ul-mulk answered that whatever His Majesty might wish was no doubt right and proper, but he might look on the speedy return of Husain ‘Ali Khan as an absolute certainty. The Emperor, greatly frightened at the prospect, sent officers with peremptory orders to Mir Jumlah to withdraw to Lāhor.3

Mir Jumlah procrastinated, and thus day after day passed. At length, either of themselves or at his instigation, his Mughal troops, seven or eight thousand in number, broke into revolt. They said that the whole of their pay was still due from the treasury, and the proper person to represent them was Mir Jumlah, their commander, and until their arrears were paid, they would not allow him to stir one step. The houses of Muhammad Amin Khan, second Bakhshi, and of Khan Daurān,

1 The Aħwäl-i- khawaqin, 118a, seems to say that by this time Mir Jumlah had been removed from his appointment, and made instead faujdār of Benares.

% Word of Mir Jumlah's arrival was brought to Mirzā Muhammad that same night by his relation, Mhd Mīr, who had been in the Nawāb's service at Patnah, Mirzā Muhammad, 237, Wheeler, 178.

3 Mirzā Muhammad, 243. The account in the Anwâl-i-kh awaqin, 118b, differs from all others. There we are told that from Farīdābād, a distance of 10 kos from Dihli, Mir Jumlah petitioned for an audience. Angry at Mir Jumlah's leaving his post without orders, Farrukhsīyar despatched mace-bearers with orders to conduct the fagitive to the fortress of Gwaliyār, and bring back a receipt from the commandant. Qutb-ul-mulk and others then interceded, the offender was pardoned, but no audience was granted. At length, he was ordered to withdraw to his estates.

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