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Sikkah zad, az fazl-2-Haqq, bar sim o xar,
“ By the grace of the True God, struck coin on silver and gold,
Sikkah zad bar gandum o moth o mattar
“Struck coin on wheat, lentils and peas,
The grain gathering emperor, Farrukhsiyar."l
There are 116 coins of this sovereign in the three collections, at the British Museum, in Lāhor, and in Calcutta ; of gold, 18 (14 of the large and 4 of the small issue), and of silver, 98 (circular 97, square, that is, the dirham-i-shara'ī or legal dirhan, 1). One hundred and - twelve are dated by the regnal year. Each year of the reign is represented, lst (8 coins), 2nd (17), 3rd (9), 4th (7), 5th (19), 6th (19), 7th (29), 8th (4). All except 6 coins (3 places not identified, 2 forged, 1 mint illegible) can be classed under the $ūbahs in which their mints were situated. These 110 coins belong to 23 mints in 15 out of the 21 Şübahs—those unrepresented being Kābal, Kashmir, Ajmer, Allahābād, Bidar and Barār. The number of coins from each mint is Lāhor (16), Multān (7), Tattah (1), Dihli, 33 (Shāhjahānābād 27, Bareli 2, Sihrind 4), Gujarāt, 7 (Şūrat 7), Akbarābād, 11 (Akbarābād 6, Ițāwah 3, Gwāliyār 2), Aadh, 1 (Lakhnau 1), Mālwah, 2 (Ujjain 2), Bahār, 8 (Patnah Azimābād 8), Bengal, 7 (Murshidābād, 6, Jahāngirnagar Dhākah, 1), Orissa, 3 (Katak 3), Khāndesh, 4 (Burhānpur 4), Aurangābād (1), Bijāpur (1), Haidarābad, 8 (Arkāt 3, Adoni 1, Chināpatan 3, Gūti 1). This distribution represents the facts fairly well: Kābul was practically lost, but the absence of coins from Kashmir, Ajmer, Allahābād and two of the Dakhin Şübahs, is difficult to account for.
1 Sayyad Mahomed Latif, “ History of the Panjab," 189, note, and KulliyātiJa'far, Zatallī, p. 57 at end. The Malāħat-i-maqal of Rão Dalpat Singh, B.M. Or. 1828, fol. 74a, attributes these lines to Mirzā Ja'far, Zaţali of Nārnol, and states that for writing them he was condemned to death (see Beale, 189). The first line has mūng instead of moth, and the second line is given as Bādshāh-i-tasmahkash, (strap-stretching) Farrukhsīyar. “ The Coins of the Moghul Emperors in the B. M.,' 1892, p. 179-190, “Coins of the Mogal Emperors" by C. J. Rodgers (Calcutta, 1893) and “ Coins of the Indian Museum” by the same (Calcutta, 1894). Mr. M. Longworth Dames “Some Coins of the Mughal Emperors,” (Numismatic Chronicle, II, 275 or 309, London 1902), has added Aḥmadābād and Ajmer and Kam. bāyal to the unit towns. Khūshhäl Cand, 396a.
J. I, 46
The square silver “ legal drachma" or dirham-i-shara'i is a curi. ous coin, and to all appearance unique. By its weight it holds the proportion to a.rupee of about one-fourth (exactly it is 23, or 3 annas and 8 pie, taking the standard rupee to have weighed 176 grains). From an analysis of the weights of the 97 circular rupees, I find more than half (54) range between 175 and 177 grains, the lowest weight (1) is 166.5 and the highest (4) is 187 grains. These latter coins come from the Katak and Murshidābād mints, and are probably a local variation. The diameters range from •80 of an inch to 1.1 inch; there are 60 of •85, 34 of 90, 11 of .95 and 9 of 1.0. Judging from the above facts, it is probable that the standard rupee was 176 grains in weight, and 90 of an inch in diameter.
From a farmān dated the 5th Rabi' I. of the 4th year, we obtain the following details as to Farrukhsīyar's seals. There were two; the first one was round, with a diameter of 4 inches, the second square,
inches each way.
The words in the centre are not in the above order on the seal. On the square seal the words appear on six lines, in the following order:
We hear of only two priocipal wives--(1) Fakhr-un-nissä Begam, daughter of Sādāt Khān; (2) the Räthor princess, the daughter of Mabārājah Ajit Singh, whose Hindū name seems to have been Bãe Indar Kuņwar. The father of the former was one Mir Muhammad Taqqi, entitled first Hasan Khan and then Sādāt Khān, son of Sādāt Khān. He is called a Husaini by race, and the family came from the Persian province of Māzandarān, on the south shore of the Caspian Sea; it had emigrated to India after having been for a time settled at Işfahān. He married a daughter of Ma‘sam Khān, Şafawi, and if this lady was the mother of Fakhr-un-nissā, this Şafawi connection would account for the daughter's selection as a prince's bride. Şādāt Khān was wounded on the 9th Rabi' II, 1131 H., the day of Farrukhsiyar's deposition, and died two or three days afterwards. He was over eighty years of age. The following table shows his family :
Sådāt Khan, d. 1181 H.
Saif Şalābat Khan 'Ataullah Fakhhr-un-nissa
married to d. 9th Khān, d. Muharram Jang) d.
Daughter=MẶd Shāh. Daughter-MẶd Shāh.
1 Tawārīkh-i-Mārwär of Murārī Dãs, B. M. Or. 5838, vol. 2, fol. 80b.
& The Majāgir-al-umarā, III, 524, calls him Mir Bazarg-i-Mara‘shi. I do not know the explanation of these epithets.
8 T-;-MẶdī, year 1128 H., Ma,āşir-ul-umară, II, 670-76, Mirza Muhammad, 174. The Magãgir-ul-umard III, 524, calls her Gühar-un-nissā Begam.
(1) T-s-Mhdi and Kāmwar Khān, 166. ;
(2) Ma,āşir-ul-amarā, II, 524.
The daughter of Ajit Singh was married on the 29th Ramazan 1127 H. (27th September, 1715) in the fourth year of the reign. She seems to have had no issue. After Farrukhsiyar's deposition and death, she was brought out of the imperial harem on the 29th Sha'bān 1131 H. (16th July, 1719), and made over to her father with the whole of her property. She returned to Jodhpur and we hear no more of her.
Another wife or concubine, the daughter of the hill Rājah of Kashtwār, entered the barem on the 24th Rajab 1129 H. (3rd July, 1717.)
M. Farkhundah Sīyar,
Bādshāh Begam. Jahāngir Shāh.
Murād Shāh. (1)
(3) (1) Jabāngir Shāh was born at Patnah on the 18th Zū,lqa'dah 1123 H. (27th December, 1711). He died of smallpox a few months afterwards, on the 17th Rabi' Iİ, 1125 (12th May, 1713),8
(2) Jabān Murād Shåh was born on the 16th Zā,lqa'dah 1129 H." (October, 21st, 1717) and died on the 22nd Jamādi II, 1130 H. (May, 22nd, 1718.) The mother was Sādāt Khān's daughter.
(3) Bādshāh Begam. This child was also born of Sādāt Khān's daughter. She married the Emperor Muhammad Shāh in 1133 H. (1720-1) and was known as Malikah-uz-zamānī,“ Queen of the Age.” She took a prominent part in securing the accession of Ahmad Shāh in 1161 H. and died in 1203 H. (1788-9).
G.-Note on Mirzā Ja'far, Zatalt, Nārnoli. The poetical title of Zatali, under which Mirzā Ja'far wrote, comes from zatal, Hindi, “chattering,- quibbling, idle-talk," (Shakespear,
1 Kanwar Khān, 172-3, Thornton, 506, Kishtwär, a town on the southern slope of the Himalaya, situated in a small plain on the left bank of the Chenab, 5,000 feet above the sea ; Lat. 33° 18', long. 75° 46'.
% B.M. Or. 1690, fo. 156b.
1212). There are several printed editions of his works. A copy of the edition of 1853, now in the Königliche Bibliothek at Berlin, belonged to Dr. Sprenger (see his Catalogue, p. 8, No. 1638.) Beale, p. 189, says he was executed by Farrukkhsiyar's orders for parodying the couplet on the coin of that emperor. The historians make no mention of this; but the fact is possible, when we remember that 'Abd-ul-jalil, Bilgrāmi, wāqi'ah-navīs of Siwistān was recalled, and deprived of his appointment, for a very innocent report. There are some further details about Zaţali in a little Urdū work Lar-i-Ja'farī, ya'ni siwānih-:'umri-i-Mir Ja'far, Zatalli, by “ Hindustani Speculator” (published by Jān Muhammad and Muḥammad Ismā‘il, Kashmiri Bāzār, Lāhor, 1890, 36 pp. litho.). From this we learn that his ancestors came to India with Humāyān, when that monarch returned to it and fought Hemū, They obtained a jāgir and were in favour during Jahāngīr's reign, but in Shāhjahān's time the grant was resumed, and the poet's father Mir ‘Abās, was forced to open a shop. Ja'far is said to have been born about the time of Alamgir's accession (1658). The other children were two daughters and a son, Safdar; the latter, the youngest of the family, being about five-and-a-half years younger than his brother. Their father died when all of them were young. One Mir Sarwar sent Ja'far to school along with his own son, Akbar. In the end Sarwar embezzled the family property; and they were reduced to poverty again. Ja'far was over sixty when he died, but no year is given. In one of his ruba'āt in his Kulliyāt he says that when he wrote it he was over sixty. The following Persian. lines in praise of tobacco are by bim:
“It is a help to a bad digestion. But his more characteristic style is a macaronic mixture of Persian and Hindi.