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A language map of West Tibet with notes.-By A. H. FRANCKE. (With Plate vii.)
For the benefit of students of my Ladakhi Grammar, J. A. S. B. Part I, Extra No. II, 1901, I am now adding a language map of the ancient Ladakhi kingdom.
In the map special attention has been paid to the Tibetan dialects of the Indus valley. To distinguish the characteristics of the different dialects, it has been asked in which manner the following consonant combinations are pronounced in each single dialect:
(1) sg, rg, sb, rb.
(2) sk, rk, sp, rp.
(4) br, pr, phr.
(5) gr, kr, phr.
I. In the Rong-dialect the pronunciation is the following:
(1) rg or sg=oh (like Urdu į); sb or rb=v.
(2) sk or rk=ch or h (like Urdu or ¿); sp or rp=f.
(3) by=j; py=c; phych.
(4) br=dr; pr=tr; phr- thr.
(1) sgam=♫ ; sbaste=vaste.
(2) skampo=hampo; cospin=cofin.
(3) bya=ja; phyogs=chogs.
(4) br=dr; pr=tr; phr=thr.
(1) rg or sg=oh (like Urdu ¿); sb or rb=v.
Before e and i the y disappears, and b, p, and ph retain their original sound.
(1) sgam=i; sbaste=vaste.
(2) skampo=skampo; cospin=cospin.
(3) bya=ja; phyogs=chogs; but byema = bema; phye=phe; phyila=phila.
(4) brag=drag; phruguthrugu.
(5) grangmo=drangmo; khrims=thrims.
(1) sgam=sgam; sbaste =sbaste.
(2) skampo=skampo; cospin=cospain (or byaspain).
(3) bya=bya; phyogs=phyogs.
(4) brag brag; phrugu=phrugu.
(5) grangmo=grangmo; khrims=khrims.
Note: Examples for py, pr, and kr, have not been given. These combinations occur almost invariably with additional prefixes which make these cases more complicated and would take up too much space. What has been said, only refers to the Indus valley. According to information received from natives the following may be added about other districts,
In the Shayog-valley a development from type No. I to type No. IV can be observed which is very similar to that of the Indus valley.
The dialect of Zangskhar is related to type No. I; only the northwestern districts show traces of type No. III.
The dialect of Rubshu is of an entirely different character altogether; it is closely related to the Central Tibetan dialects and exhibits the Tibetan tone system in its full development (compare my article on Amundsen's and the native grammarian's tone system in Z. D. M. G., Vol. 57, p. 285.) But the tone system has not yet become quite extinct in the Indus valley, although the bad Tibetan of Indian and Yarkandi traders has done much harm to it.
Conclusion: From the above tables of dialects it becomes evident that the farther we advance towards north-west, down the Indus-valley, the more the pronunciation of the dialects is in agreement with the written language; or, in other words, the north-western dialects represent a more archaic state of the Tibetan language.
The Dard question of West-Tibet. Other researches have shown me that the north-western portions of Ladakh, at least as far up as Saspola in the Indus-valley, were once peopled by Dard tribes which have been tibetanized only recently. The reasons are: (1) the historical recollections of the people. (2) The Dard names of many pha-spunships. (3) Remnants of the Dard language in those districts. (4) Dard customs in those districts.
Thus it can be shown, for instance, that Khalatse (Khalsi or Khalchi of the maps) used to be a Dard village in ancient times, although nowa-days at first sight it appears to be thoroughly Tibetan.
(1) According to the historical recollections of its present inhabitants Khalatse used to be a Dard colony from Gilgit.
(2) The pha-spunships. Pha-spun means 'father-brothers.' The members of a pha-spunship have to burn the dead in their own phaspunship. My explanation of this is the following: In the ancient times the near relatives (father, brothers, etc.) had to bury the dead. All the members of a pha-spunship of the present day go back to one and the same family of ancient times.
The pha-spunships of Khalatse are the following:
(a) Brushalpa: It comprises the following six families: Khrolepa, rGyamthsopa, Sherabpa, Ralupa, Gongmapa, bKrashis bsamphelpa.
(b) Pakorapa: It comprises the following nine families: Sabipa sNumpa, Bhandrepa, rKangchagpa, Grong dponpa, Dragchospa, Grambucanpa, Byabapa, rKyallupa.