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30 Za'l qa'da 1 Muḥarram
2 Rabi' I
2 Rabi' II
3 Jumādā I
3 Jumādā II
3-8 Jumādā II
8 Jumādā II
11 Zu'l qa'da
TABLE OF MONTHLY SYNCHRONISMS.
11 Zu'l hijja 11 Muḥarram
12 Rabi' I
12 Rabi' II
13 Jumādā I
13 Jumādā II
1013-New Year's day of 50th solar year in Akbar's reign.1=9 March, O.S., 1605.
=1 Farwardin 50 of Akbar.
1C13=1 Ardibihisht 50
1014-1 Shahriwar 50
Salim ascends the throne.&
8 Jumādā II—3 Rajab 1014-6-30 Abān
50 of Salim.
1014 New Year's day of 1st solar year in
to 10 March, O.S., 1606.
=1 Farwardin 2 of Salim.
1 Brit. Mus. Catal. of Indian Coins-the Mughal Emperors, page lxii. Also Cunningham's Book of Indian Eras, p. 225.
2 Cf. D. E. VI. 284. The date 8 Jumādā ii, 1014 A.H., corresponds not to the 12th but to the 11th October, 1605 A.D.
8 D. E. VI. 290, note 2.
4 1014 H. was an intercalary year, and thus its month Zu'l hijja contained 30 days.
15 Shawwal 21 Zu'l qa'da
21 Dhu'l hijja 22 Muharram
23 Rabi' I
23 Rabi' II
24 Jumādā I
24 Jumādā II
2 Zu❜l ḥijja
1015=1 Isfandārmuz 1015-1 of Jahangir.
3 Rabi 'I
=1 Farwardin 1015-2 of Jahangir.
10161 Shahiwar 1016-2
1 Farwardin' 1016-3 of Jahāngir.
From this Table it appears that the Salimi coins find their place between Akbar's and Jahangir's, and that the period of their issue covered nine consecutive months. In complete accord with the arrangement indicated in the Table my collection shows, either in silver or in copper, Akbar's coins struck month by month from Farwardin till Mihr of the Ilahi year 50, but none later than Mihr. Next in evidence are the Salimi coins of the year 50 beginning with Ābān (Pl. I. 6) and continuing without a break till Isfandarmuz (Pl. I. 7. 8). ; and thereafter month by month from Farwardin till Tir (Pl. J. 9. 10) the Salimi coins of the year 2. Then follow, last of all, the "heavy rupees" of Jahāngir, dated not 1014-1 but 1015-1, 1015-2, 1016-2, 1016-3, &c.
In support of the opinion that the Salimi coins of the year 50 precede those of the year 2, one further piece of evidence is noteworthy. Ex hypothesi, the first Salimi coins to be struck were those of Âbān 50.
1 Cf. D. E. VI, 302. On line 12 of page 302 correct 22nd to 21st, and 1603 to
2 D. E. VI, 316. 1016 H. being an intercalary year, its month Zu'l bijja contained 30 days.
Now it is precisely the coins of this month that differ in their legend from all subsequent issues. The difference consists largely but not solely in the arrangement of the words, and extends both to the obverse and to the reverse. The coins struck in the following month, Āzar, are of that modified type which was maintained till the close of the series. Now the explanation of this change is clear if, as our theory assumes, the Ābān coins were the first struck. They simply did not meet with complete approval. The obverse was pronounced too crowded and the reverse too diffuse. Orders were accordingly given to omit altogether the one word Ilāhi and further to so rearrange the component words of the legend that a portion only should find a place on the obverse and the remainder on the reverse. The new dies were ready before the coins of the second month were struck, and thereafter, so long as the Salimi series issued, no further variation was deemed necessary.
This Ābān 50 rupee is an evident link between Akbar's of the preceding month and Salim's of the succeeding. While its obverse bears Salim's name and the Salimi legend, its reverse is identical in type with the reverse of the rupees struck at Aḥmadābād in the last year of Akbar's reign. Geo. P. TAYLOR, Ahmadabad.
6. The copper coinage of Murad Bakhsh son of Shahjahan. Pl. I. 11.
When Shahjahan fell ill in A. H. 1067 (1657 A.D.) and his sons asserted their claims to the throne of the Mughal, Murad Bakhsh was in Gujarat. The mints from which he issued coins in his own name were confined to that province.
His silver coins are not infrequently met with struck at either Aḥmadābād, Sūrat or Cambay (Khambāyat). The gold coins are extremely scarce and but one or two struck at Aḥmadābād are known. One of these is figured in the British Museum Catalogue (No. 692). Hitherto his copper coinage has been unknown. Mr. Framjee Jamasjee Thanawala, of Bombay, however, was fortunate in securing two specimens of dāms (fulūs) struck by Murad Bakhsh at Surat, and one of these he has kindly presented to me. The coins are of the usual size of Akbarī dām and weigh 316 and 333 grains, respectively. They bear the following legends :
J. I. 10
H. N. WRIGHT, C.S.
7. A coronation medal of the first king of Oudh. Pl. II.
Obverse.-Bust of king, three quarters face in high relief, crowned and garlanded-within circular area-remaining ground occupied by flowered tracery-marginal legend in florid characters beginning under the king's left shoulder.
سکه زد برسیم و زر از فضل رب ذوالمنن غازي الدين حيدر عالي نسب شاه زمن سنة احد
Reverse.—Arms of the king in high relief within circular area. Two lions rampant holding flags on each of which appears a fish. Between them a dagger (katār) surmounted by a crown. Below the flags two fishes forming a circle, head to head below streamer. In righthand corner of area the letter. Marginal legend beginning opposite the right flag.
هزار سال باشي تو در زمان خدا تا هزار سال شاها بقاي عمر تو بادا
Weight.-1,260 grs. Size 2.6′′.
This interesting medal was obtained in Allahabad whither it had been brought from Jhunsi in the Allahabad district. It apparently commemorates the assumption by Ghāziuddin Ḥaidar of regal dignity in October, 1819 (1234 A. H.). This monarch was the eldest son of Nawāb Sa'adat Ali Khan of Awadh and had five years previously succeeded his father as Nawab Wazir. At this coronation ceremony the crown was delivered to the king by the British Resident. Ghāzi-uddin Haidar reigned as king of Awadh for eight years. One of the titles. assumed by him at his coronation was Shāh-i-Zaman, and this title appears on the medal. Beyond they diw on the obverse, which doubtless refers to the first year of the newly assumed sovereignty, there is no date recorded, nor does the reverse legend appear to be a chronogram. The workmanship is of a high order, and the appearance on the medal of the king's portrait contrary to orthodox custom indicates that the design was probably entrusted to some European artist. An oil-painting and a marble bust representing the king similarly diademed and arrayed are in the Lucknow Museum, but the name of the artist has in neither case been preserved. A second specimen is in the cabinet of Mr. R. Burn, C.S., and was also obtained in Allahabad.
H. N. WRIGHT, C.S.