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Williams, Sir Edward Vanghan, 224.
unidentified in four Dutch Monn-
Yudhişthira, the hero of Mahábhárata,
pa-j-bsten-bchos-sum-chu-pa-dang rtags-kyi ajug-pa-i-rnam-shad-mkhas. mchhog-situ-i-shal-lung, a Tibetan
work, 189. Yûng-ho-kung, the monastery of, e. 80. Yûnglo, the third Emperor of the Ta
ming dynasty, e. 80.
rab-tu-gsal-bar-byed-pa-i-bsten-bchosskal-bzang-mig-abyed-ches-by a - b Q
bshugs-so, a Tibetan work, 164. Zafar Jang pr. n., 289. Khān, 318, 325, 332, 338, 840,
e. 43-44. 'Alāuddin Ahmad II, offspring of; e. 10. Kbān-i-Kbānán, e. 10. Roshanuddaula, e. 28. Furrah, 328, 331.
Tarrah-i-báz, 325, e, 51. Zag-med-gsur-bsugo-i-akhrid-yig-su gon
med-bgs-bshad-mthong-ba-don-id anshes-bya-ba-bshugs-so, Tibetan
Yabam Silema, wife of Kya-ring, Thag.
meh, e 94.
monastery, e. 102.
(Lake Palti district), e. 99.
Gupta, Balāditya of Magadha, 369.
tion, e. 99.
Lama, e. 85, e. 88.
Life of, 123.
ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL,
Part I.--HISTORY, LITERATURE, &c.
Some Notes on the Bahmani Dynasty..-By MAJOR W. Had.
[Read 2nd November, 1904.]
(1) THE ORIGIN OF THE COGNOMEN BAHMANI.
The legends commonly related by historians regarding the origin of the cognomen Bahmani connect it with the name of the priestly caste of the Hindus. The story preferred by Firishta and repeated by Khāfi Khan in the third volume of the Muntakhabu-l-Lubab is that Hasan, the founder of the dynasty, was, in his youth, a servant of Kānkū, Gāngū, or Gangū, a Brahman astrologer who enjoyed the confi. dence of Muhammad bin Taghlaq before he ascended the throne. One day, as he was ploughing some waste land for the Brahman, his plough stuck fast. On digging it out of the ground he found that it had
1 In this article the editions referred to are the following:
Burhān-i-Ma'āgir and Tazkiratu-1Xulük-translation by Major J. S. King, Lazao & Co., 1900.
Muntakhabu-l-Lubäb, Vol. III.-MS, in writer's popression.
J. 1. 1
caught in a chain and that to the chain was attached a chest containing äshrafis and uncoined gold, which he took straight to his master. The Brahman was so pleased with Hasan's honesty that he brought him to the notice of the prince, Muhammad bin Tughlaq, by whose influence be obtained an appointment in the imperial service. Shortly after this the Brahman informed Hasan that he had cast his horoscope, and foretold that he would rise to the highest dignity. He asked him to promise that he would, when this prophecy should be fulfilled, take the name of his original benefactor as part of his title, and Hasan made the required promise and, when the time came, fulfilled it by styling himself, as king, “ Hasan Kānkū-i-Bahmani.” In corroboration of this story Firishta records (i. 527) that Hasan, after being proclaimed king of the Dakan, made Kānkū the Brahman the controller of the finances of his kingdom, and that he was the first Muhammadan ruler to employ a Brahman in so high a post.
The only authority which we have for this story is that of Firishta, for Khāfī Khān, being admittedly little more than a copyist so far as the affairs of the Dakan are concerned, cannot be accounted an authority. The author of the Labaqāt-i-Akbari, the Burhān-i-Ma'āşir, and the Tazkiratu-l-Mulūk relate other legends, all more or less improbable, but do not commit themselves to Firishta's account of Hasan's servitude in the house of a Hindu. The predictions of his greatness are attributed variously to one Gangū, a Brahman, not said to be his master, Shaikh Nizāmu-d-din Auliyā of Dibli, and Shaikh Muhammad Sirāj-iJunaidi, in whose service he is said to have held some post.
The titles of Hasan, as king of the Dakan, are variously given by bistorians as follows :--In Firishta's history (i. 525), 'Alā'u-d-din Đasan Kānkū-i-Bahmani, by Khāfi Khān in the third volume of the Muntakhabu-l-Lubāb, Alā'u-d-din Kānkū-i-Bahmanī, curf Hasan, by Nizāmu-d-din Aḥmad in the Tabaqāt-e-Akbarī, 'Ala’u-d-dīn Hasan Shah, by 'Ali-bin 'Azāzi-'llāh Tabatabā in the Burhān-i-Ma'āşir, ‘Alā'u-d-dīn Hasan Shāh Gangū-z-Bahmanī, and 'Alā'u-d-din Hasan Shāh al Valī-ulBahmanī, by the author of the Tazkiratu-l-Mülūk, 'Alā'u-d-dīn Bahman Shāh, and by Badāoni in the Muntakhabu-t-Tawārikh (i. 231) “ the Sulțān who is known as Hasan Kānkū and at last obtained the King. dom of the Dakan under the title of 'Ala'u-d-dīn Bahman Shāh.”
The title given by Badāoni and the author of the Tazkiratu-lMulūk is correct. Hasan did not add to his title the epithet Bahmanī, but assumed the name of Bahman. There is in the fort of Gulbarga a contemporary inscription, bearing the date A.H. 754 (A.D. 1353) in which his titles are given as “Alā'u-d-dunyā wa'd-din Abū-'l-Muzaffar Bahman Shāh." The names Hasan and Kānkū, or Gangú, and the
epithet Bahmani, which is used on the coins of his successors and is correctly applied to them only, are omitted. The inscription, which was cut while Bahman Shāh was still alive and reigning, and was placed over a mosque in his capital, is far better evidence of the style under which he reigned than any statements of historians. Other evidence, however, exists. I have a copper coin which bears the inscription "Aḥmad Shāh bin Aḥmad Shāh bin Bahman Shāh." This inscription needs some explanation—a question which will be considered hereafter-but there is no doubt that the words “Bahman Shāh refer to the founder of the Bahmani dynasty. There is also the Bahman-nāma, a versified history of the Bahmani kings, the authorship of which is uncertain, but which is often quoted by Firishta. The title of this history cannot refer to the epithet Bahmani, but can and evidently does refer to the name Bahman.
The question of the title under which the founder of the Bahman dynasty assumed the sovereignty of the Dakan is important as an indication of the derivation of the name by which that dynasty is known. It is conceivable that a Muhammadan king might have distinguished himself, from gratitnde to a Brahman benefactor, by the epitlet Bahmanī, even though that epithet is never found in its uncorrupted form Brahmani, bat no Muḥammadan king would have styled himself “King Brahman." The derivation of the title Bahman Shāh must, therefore, be sought in Hasan's claim to descend from the Sāsānidise. His pedigree, as given by Firishta, is as follows:-'Alā'u-d-din Hasan, the son of Kaikāūs, the son of Muhammad, the son of 'Ali, the son of Hasan, the son of Sahām, the son of Simūn, the son of Salām, the son of Ibrahim, the son of Naşir, the son of Munşūr, the son of Rustam, the son of Kaiqubad, the son of Minūchihr, the son of Nāmdār, the son of Isfandiyār, the son of Kaiyūmars, the son of Khurshid, the son of Şa'şă, the son of Faghfūr, the son of Farrukh, the son of Shahryār, the son of Amir, the son of Suhaid, the son of Malik Dā’ūd, the son of Hūshang, the son of Nik Kardār, the son of Firāz Bakht, the son of Nūḥ, the son of Şāni', who was descended from Bahrām-i-gūr the Sāmānī, who was descended from Bahman the son of Isfandiyār. This pedigree is varied as follows by the author of the Burhān-i-Ma'āsir :
Alā'u-d-dunya wa-'d-din Hasan Bahman Shāh, son of Kaikāûs Muḥammad, son of ' Ali, son of Hasan, son of Bahtām, son of Simūn, son of Salām, son of Nūḥ, son of Ibrāhīm, son of Naşir, son of Manşūr, son of Nūḥ, son of Șāni', son of Bahrām, son of Shāhrin, son of Sad, son of Nüsin, son of Dāvād, son of Bahrām-i-gūr. Both historians express some doubts as to the authenticity of the pedigrees which they give, and there can be little doubt that both pedigrees are fictitious.