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The dates of Vidyapati's birth and death cannot be ascertained, but the day and month of his death are stated in the following couplet :-faqrqfa च्यायु व्यवसान | कातिक धवल त्रयोदशि जान ||
"Know that the termination of Vidyapati's life was on the white thirteenth day of Kārtik."
This shows that the poet died on the thirteenth day of the full moon in the month of Kārtik.
A note on Mahāmahataka Canḍeśvara Thakkura of Mithila.—By MR. JUSTICE SARADA CHARAN MITRA.
[Read 7th December, 1904.]
Caṇḍeśvara Thakkura is known to Anglo-Indian lawyers as the author of the Vivāda-Ratnākara, which and the Vivada-Cintāmaņi are the leading authorities of the Mithila school of the Mitākṣarā system of Hindu Law. But to Sanskrit scholars Caṇḍeśvara is known as the author of the Sapta-Ratnākara of which the Vivāda-Ratnākara is only a part. As the name implies, the Ratnakara consists of seven parts. The duties and obligations of man in their widest sense are divided by the author into seven parts, and those regarding property form the subject of the Vivada-Ratnākara. The other parts of the Ratnākara are Kṛtya, Dāna, Vyavahāra, Suddhi, Pūjā and Gṛhastha.
Of the seven Ratnākaras, the Vivada only is now accessible in translation in English. Babus Golapa Chandra Sarkara Sastri, M.A., B.L., and Digambara Chattopadhyaya, M.A., B.L., Vakils of the Calcutta High Court, published in the year 1899, in Devanāgarī, the original text of the Vivāda with a translation in English. The learned gentlemen have not been able to give us much information regarding Candesvara Thakkura or his family. He was himself a minister of a Raja of Mithila named Hara Simh or Hari Simh of the Karṇāṭa Kṣatriya family; he was a son of Vireśvara Thakkura who was also a minister ; he was living in the year 1314 A.D=1236 (Sāka Era) when he performed the tulă ceremony. These are facts which appear from the concluding passage of the Ratnakara, in which Candesvara is called the Somnath of the North.
cafafoyaa— afmà Maað
These were the only facts known about the author of the SaptaRatnākara in the year 1899.
During my recent travels in the Mithila country, I have with the help of the Honorable Maharaja Rameswara Singh Bahadur of Darbhanga, who is not only the chief of all Mithila Brahmans but is also a great patron of Sanskrit learning, been able to collect some
J. 1. 4
information regarding Candesvara and his family. In this as well as in other matters regarding my investigations into the ancient literature of Mithila to which Bengal owes much, I have also derived considerable assistance from my friend Mr. N. Gupta who kindly accompanied me.
Caṇḍeśvara Thakkura belonged to an ancient and learned family of Mithila Brahmans. They came originally from a village called Visai and were known as Visaibar Brahmans. The village Visai cannot now be identified. It is very probable that Candeśvara was born at Vișai. Some of the members of the family now reside at Saurat (Saurāṣṭra), and it is said they shifted there from their original place of residence. They cannot give us any information when the family migrated.
Candesvara's grand-father, Devaditya, was the prime-minister of a Raja of Mithila-probably Raja Hara Simh's father whose name was Sakra Simh. The Raja was a feudatory of Alauddin Khiljī, the Afghan Sultan of Delhi, who reigned from 1295 to 1315 A.D. The Raja and his prime-minister are said to have taken a leading part in 1295 A.D. against Hamvira Deva of Ranstambha which was besieged and taken in that year. These facts are borne out by a passage in the Kṛtya-Cintāmani by Candesvara himself.
Raja Hara Simb, as appears from the Pañji caused to be compiled and first introduced by him, was born in the year 1216 (Sāka Era), and the Pañji was first introduced 32 years later, ¿.e., 1348 A.D. Candeśvara performed the Tula ceremony in 1314 A.D. Raja Hara Simh must have been young at the time, having succeeded his father at an early age.
Devaditya had seven sons-Vireśvara, Dhireśvara, Guṇeśvara, Jatesvara, Haradatta, Laksmiśvara and Subhadatta. The eldest Vireśvara, was one of the ministers of the Raja of Mithilā, but whether of Raja Sakra Simh or Raja Hari Simh does not clearly appear. He is known to Sanskrit scholars as the author of Chandoga-Paddhati, also called Daśakarma-Paddhati. This book has been recently published with notes by Pandit Parameśvara Jha, a learned scholar of Mithilā attached to the Darbar of the Mahārāja of Darbhanga. Amongst other works, Vireśvara caused a big tank to be excavated in village Dahibhata which is still called "Virśawara" after his name. This tank is in the vicinity of the Pandoul Factory.
Candeśvara was the eldest son of Viresvara and was one of the famous men of his time both as a minister and as a scholar. As prime minister he held a position next to the Raja and was celebrated for his diplomatic talents. It is said that Raja Hara Simh on one occasion declined to acknowledge the suzerainty of the Afghan Emperor of Delhi who advanced against him with a large army. The Raja
fled to Nepal. Babu Prasanna Kumar Tagore says in his preface to the Vivāda Cintamaņi that Hara Simh became Raja of Simroon in 1323 A.D. after it had been taken by Tughlak Shāh. The big tank at Darbhanga near the Railway Station known as Harari or Harsayar is said to have been excavated at the instance of Hari Simh's minister.
The name of Candesvara has, however, come down to us for his great works, the Ratnākara and Krtya Cintamaņi. Mr. Colebrooke in his preface to the Digest of Hindu Law on Contracts and Successions (1798 A.D.) says, 'The Vivāda-Ratnākara was compiled under the superintendence of Candes vara' and so it bears the latter's name in the same way as Trebonian's great work that of Justinian. But the learned scholars of Mithilā have always ascribed the work to Candesvara himself who was undoubtedly a scholar of great repute. I may quote the following sloka on the point :
कृतास्तनापुरुषदेन सप्त ॥
Instances of Rajas and their ministers having been authors or commentators of great reputation are not rare in India. It seems to me that there is no inherent improbability in the widely accepted belief that Candesvara was the actual writer of the books that bear his
Vireśvara's second son Dhireśvara was also a great Pandit. Vidyapati Thakkura the great hard of Mithila and the author of the Purusaparikṣā and Durgābhaktitarangini was his great-grandson. One of their living descendants is Badri Nath Thakur who is sixteenth in descent from Dhireśvara and thirteenth from Vidyapati. He and his collaterals now live at Saurāt.
Vireśvara's third son, Guṇeśvara, was also a minister, and his son Rāmadatta was known as a learned writer.
The Later Mughals (1707–1803).—By WILLIAM IRVINE, Bengal Civil Service (Retired).
In continuation of the articles in Part I of the Journal for 1896, Vol. LXV, pp. 136-212, for 1898, Vol. LXVII, pp. 141-166, and 1903, Vol. LXXII, pp. 33-64.
CHAPTER V.-RAFI'-UD-DARAJĀT (1719).
Section 1.—EVENTS CONNECTED WITH THE ACCESSION.
The new emperor, a consumptive youth of twenty years of age, was proclaimed under the style and titles of Abū, 1-barakāt, Sulṭān Shams-ud-din, Muḥammad Rafī‘-ud-darajāt, Bādshāb, Ghāzi. Within and without the palace, in every audience-hall and at every door, the Sayyads placed men of their own. A chronogram for the accession was found:
"When Rafi'-ud-darajat ascended the throne
"The sun appeared in the heavens out of 'Arafāt :
"The sage, seeing the lustre and strength of his wisdom,
At the first audience, on the prayer of Mahārājah Ajit Singh, Rājah Bhim Singh of Kotah, and Rājah Ratn Cand, the jizyah or polltax, was again abolished. In other respects as few changes as possible were made, even the wālāshāhis or personal troops of the late sovereign being retained in the service. The object was to dispel anxiety and restore order without delay. Muḥammad Amin Khan was maintained in his post of second Bakhshi, Zafar Khān, Roshan-ud-daulah, replaced Saifullah Khan in that of third Bakhshi, and the office of fourth Bakhshi was left in abeyance. For seven days there was much confusion, and few men attended the imperial audience-hall; the people generally stood aloof, and also many of the officials. Nizam-ul-mulk kept close at home,
Kih nagah Waziḥ raqm kard o guft;
"The morning star seized the pen and said;
Jām-i-jam, and Miftāḥ 304, Khāfĩ Khān, II, 816, Mirzā Muḥammad, 462.