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The dates of Vidyāpati's birth and death cannot be ascertained, but the day and month of his death are stated in the following couplet :-

विद्यापतिक घायु अवसान । i
कातिक धवल त्रयोदशि जान ।

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“ Know that the termination of Vidyāpati's life was on the white thirteenth day of Kārtik."

This shows that the poet died on the thirteenth day of the full moon in the month of Kārtik.

A note on Mahāmahataka Candeśvara Thakkura of Mithilā.-By MR.


[Read 7th December, 1904.] Caņạeśvara Thakkura is known to Anglo-Indian lawyers as the author of the Vivāda-Ratnākara, which and the Vivāda-Cintāmaņi are the leading authorities of the Mithilā school of the Mitākṣarā system of Hindu Law. But to Sanskrit scholars Candeśvara is known as the author of the Sapta-Ratnākara of which the Vivāda-Ratnākara is only a part. As the name implies, the Ratnākara consists of seven parts. The duties and obligations of man in their widest sense are divided by the author into seven parts, and those regarding property form the subject of the Vivāda-Ratnākara. The other parts of the Ratpakara are Kștya, Dāna, Vyavahāra, Suddhi, Pūjā and Gșhastha.

Of the seven Ratnākaras, the Vivāda only is now accessible in translation in English. Babus Golapa Chandra Sarkara Sastri, M.A., B.L., and Digambara Chattopadhyaya, M.A., B.L., Vakils of the Calcutta High Court, published in the year 1899, in Davanāgari, the origival text of the Vivāda with a translation in English. The learned gentlemen have not been able to give us much information regarding Caņņeśvara shakkura or his family. He was himself a minister of a Raja of Mithilă named Hara Simh or Hari Simh of the Karnāta Ksatriya family ; he was a son of Vireśvara Țhakkura who was also a minister

i he was living in the year 1314 A.D=1236 (Sāka Era) when he performed the tulā ceremony. These are facts wbich appear from the concluding passage of the Ratnákara, in which Candeśvara is called the Somnāth of the North.

रसशिखिभुजचन्द्रे सम्मिते शाकवर्षे
सहसि धवलपक्षे वागवती सिन्धतौरे ।

पदित तुलितमुच्चैरात्मना खर्णराशि

निधिरखिलगुणानामुत्तरः सोमनाथः ।। These were the only facts known about the author of the SaptaRatnākara in the

1899. During my recent travels in the Mithilā country, I have with the help of the Honorable Mabaraja Rameswara Singh Bahadur of Darbhanga, who is not only the chief of all Mithilā Brahmans but is also a great patron of Sanskrit learning, been able to collect some


J. 1. 4

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information regarding Caņdeśvara and his family. In this as well as in other matters regarding my investigations into the ancient literature of Mithilā to which Bengal owes much, I have also derived considerable assistance from my friend Mr. N. Gupta who kindly accompanied me.

Caņdeśvara Țhakkura belonged to an ancient and learned family of Mithilā Brahmaps. They came originally from à village called Visai and were known as Vişaibar Brahmans. The village Viņai cannot now be identified. It is very probable that Candeśvara was born at Vişai. Some of the members of the family now reside at Saurāt (Saurāştra), and it is said they shifted there from their original place of residence. They cannot give us any information when the family migrated.

Caņdeśvara's grand-father, Devāditya, was the prime-minister of a Raja of Mithilā—-probably Raja Hara Simh's father whose name was Sakra Simh. The Raja was a feudatory of Alauddin Khiljī, the Afghan Sultan of Delhi, who reigned from 1295 to 1315 A.D. The Raja and his prime-minister are said to have taken a leading part in 1295 A.D. against Hamvira Deva of Raņstambha which was besieged and taken in that year. These facts are borne out by a passage in the Kộtya-Cintamani by Caņdeśvara himself.

Raja Hara Simh, as appears from the Pañji caused to be compiled and first introduced by him, was born in the year 1216 (S'āka Era), and the Pañji was first introduced 32 years later, i.e., 1348 A.D. Candeśvara performed the Tulā ceremony in 1314 A.D. Raja Hara Simh must have been young at the time, having succeeded his father at an early age.

Devāditya had seven sons–Vireśvara, Dhireśvara, Guņeśvara, Jateśvara, Haradatta, Lakşmiśvara and Subhadatta. The eldest Vireśvara, was one of the ministers of the Raja of Mithilā, but whether of Raja Sakra Simh or Raja Hari Simh does not clearly appear. He is known to Sanskrit scholars as the author of Chāudoga-Paddhati, also called Daśakarma-Paddhati. This book has been recently published with notes by Pandit Parameśvara Jha, a learned scholar of Mithilā attached to the Darbār of the Mahārāja of Darbhanga. Amongst other works, Vīreśvara caused a big tank to be excavated in village Dahibhata which is still called “Virśawara" after his name. This tank is in the vicinity of the Pandoul Factory.

Candeśvara was the eldest son of Vireśvara and was one of the famous men of his time both as a minister and as a scholar. As prime minister he held a position next to the Raja and was celebrated for his diplomatic talents. It is said that Raja Hara Simh on one occasion declined to acknowledge the suzerainty of the Afghan Emperor of Delhi who advanced against him with a large army. The Raja fled to Nepal. Babu Prasanna Kumar Tagore says in his preface to the Vivāda Cintāmaņi that Hara Simb became Raja of Simroon in 1323 A.D. after it had been taken by Tughlak Shāh. The big tank at Darbhanga near the Railway Station known as Harari or Harsayar is said to have been excavated at the instance of Hari Simh's minister.

The name of Caņdeśvara has, however, come down to us for his great works, the Ratnākara and Kștya Cintamaņi. Mr. Colebrooke in his preface to the Digest of Hindu Law on Contracts and Successions (1798 A.D.) says, 'The Vivāda-Ratnākara was compiled under the superintendence of Caņdeśvara' and so it bears the latter's name in the same way as Trebonian's great work that of Justinian. But the learned scholars of Mithilā have always ascribed the work to Candeśvara himself who was undoubtedly a scholar of great repute. I may quote the following śloka on the point :

पूजाविवादेषु तथा एहस्थे।
रत्नाकरा रनमुवो निबद्धाः

कृतास्तुलापुरषदेन सप्त ॥ Instances of Rajas and their ministers having been authors or commentators of great reputation are not rare in India. It seems to me that there is no inherent improbability in the widely accepted belief that Candeśvara was the actual writer of the books that bear his


Vireśvara's second son Dhireśvara was also a great Paņạit. Vidyāpati Thakkura the great hard of Mithilā and the author of the Puruşaparikşā and Durgābhaktitarangini was his great-grandson. One of their living descendants is Badri Nath Țhākur who is sixteenth in descent from Dhireśvara and thirteenth from Vidyāpati. He and his collaterals now live at Saurāt.

Vireśvara's third son, Guņeśvara, was also a minister, and his son Rāmadatta was known as a learned writer.

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The Later Mughals (1707-1803).-By WILLIAM IRVINE, Bengal Civil Ser

vice (Retired).
In continuation of the articles in Part I of the Journal for 1896,
Vol. LXV, pp. 136-212, for 1898, Vol. LXVII, pp. 141-166, and 1903,
Vol. LXXII, pp. 33-64.

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The new emperor, a consumptive youth of twenty years of age,
was proclaimed under the style and titles of Abū, l-barakāt, Sultan
Shams-ud-din, Muhammad Rafi'-ud-darajāt, Bādshāh, Ghāzi. Within
and without the palace, in every audience-hall and at every door, the
Sayyads placed men of their own. A chronogram for the accession was
found :

“When Rafi'-ud-darajāt ascended the throne
“The sun appeared in the heavens out of 'Arafāt :
“The sage, seeing the lustre and strength of his wisdom,

Brought forth the date, ' His title is High of Dignity'.”l
At the first audience, on the prayer of Mahārājah Ajit Singh,
Rājah Bhim Singh of Kotah, and Rājah Ratn Cand, the jizyah or poll-
tax, was again abolished. In other respects as few changes as possible
were made, even the wālāshāhīs or personal troops of the late sovereign
being retained in the service. The object was to dispel anxiety and
restore order without delay. Muḥammad Amin Khān was maintained
in his post of second Bakhshi, Zafar Kbān, Roshan-ud-daulah, replaced
Saifullah Khān in that of third Bakhshi, and the office of fourth Bakhshi
was left in abeyance. For seven days there was much confusion, and
few men attended the imperial audience-hall; the people generally stood
aloof, and also many of the officials. Nizām-ul-mulk kept close at home,

1 Nishist ba-takht cūn Rafi'-ud-darajat

Go bar arsh sar kashid az 'Arafāt :
Pir-i-khirad did ba farr-o-shukoh
Tārīkh āmad, Laqb-i-rafit-ud-darajät." (1131).
A second is :

Kih någah Waziḥ raqm kard o guft;
" Mubārik jalūs-i-shāhānshäh-i-haqq." (1131).
“ The morning star seized the pen and said ;

«« Blessed be the righteous king's accession.' Jām-i-jam, and Miftāḥ 304, Khāfī Khān, II, 816, Mirzā Muhammad, 462.

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