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were impelled to their removal by the fear of being themselves involved. Or, as some suggested, the Sayyads had resolved on killing out by degrees the whole of Taimūr's race. When the way was open, they meant to claim the throne for themselves, Qutb-ul-mulk taking Hindustān, and Husain ‘Ali Khān, the Dakhin and Mālwah. The author in question sums'up in favour of the third supposition, and blames the Sayyads for forgetting that :

“ He who chooses to leave the beaten path
“Will never reach his journey's 'end.”ı

APPENDIX (RAFIS-UD-DAULAH).

Length of reign.-Rafi'-ud-daulah reigned four months and sixteen days. As the month or year of his birth is nowhere stated in any firstclass authority, we do not know his exact age. If he was eighteen months older than his brother, Rafi'-ud-darajāt, he must have been between twenty and twenty-one years old at the time of death.?

Title.-On his accession he received the title of Shāhjahān şāni (the second), but his full style is nowhere given.

Coin.There are nineteen of this emperor's coins in the three public collections before referred to; three of gold and sixteen of silver, all circular. Except one, all are dated, bearing the year 1131 H. These nineteen coins come from ten mints in eight out of the twentyone provinces : coins from Kābul, Kashmir, Multān, Ajmer, Audh, Allahābād, Mālwah, Orissah, and five out of the six Dakhin şübahs are absent. The mints from which there are coins are Lāhor (2), Tatthah (1), Shāhjahānābād (6), Bareli (2), Sürat (1), Akbarābād (2), Islāmābād (1), Patnah (1), Murshidābād (2), Aurangābād (1). Taţthah, strange to say, re-appears in the list of active mints after some interval. For the gold coins the weights are 167,168.5, and 169 grains respectively, and the diameters 8, 85, and 9 of an inch. For the silver coins the weights are 172 grains (1), 173 (2), 174 (1), 174.5 (2), 175 (3), 176 (1), 177 (3), 178 (1), 179.3 (1), 180 (1); and the diameters, -80 of an inch (2), -81 (1), ·85 (1), '86 (1), '88 (1), .90 (3), .95 (5), 1:0 (1), 1•03 (1). The inscription as given by Rodgers, “ Lahore Jatalogue," 207, is Sikkah-i-mubārik-z-Bādshāh-i-ghāzi Shāh Jahān. I

1 Aħwâl-i-khawāqin, fol. 172a.

Khilaf-i-mamarr kase rah guzīd

Kih hargis ba manzil na khwāhad rasīd. 2 The Jām-i-Jam, a non-contemporary work, makes him a younger brother, and gives his birthday as the 5th Şafar 1113 H. (11th July, 1701).

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reject his seventh coin from Māhā Indarpur (i.e., Bhartpur, see id. 264), as I believe it belongs to the other Shāhjahān of 1174 H. (also commonly called “Sāni," or the second). In 1131 H. Bhartpur had not become the chief place of the Jāts, nor was it then more than an obscure village, whereas in 1174 H. it was the capital of one of the chief partizans of the minister, 'Imād-ul-malk, who in 1173 H. (December, 1759) had placed this third Shāhjahān upon the throne after the assassination of Alamgir II.

Family. We do not know if Rafi'-ud-daulah was married, or if he was, who his wife was; nor do we hear of his having left any children. On the 13th Zú,l Qa'dah (21st September, 1719) his bier was sent to Dihli, and he was buried beside his brother near the shrine of Qutbud-din,

CHAPTER VII.

MUŅAMMAD SHAH (1719-1748). During the few days which elapsed between the death of Rafi'-ud-daulab and the arrival of his successor, the Wuzīr and his brother made their usual daily visit to the imperial quarters and returned with robes of honour, as if newly conferred on them, thus deceiving the common people into the belief that the emperor was still alive.1

At length on the 11th Zü'l Qa'dah 1131 H. (24th September, 1719), Ghulam 'Ali Khāu arrived in the camp at Bidyāpur, a village three kos to the north of Fathpur Sikri. He brought with him Prince Roshan Akhtar, the son of the late Khujistah Akhtar, Jahān Shāh, fourth son of the Emperor Bahādur Shāh.* The death of Rafi -uddaulah was now (26th September, 1719) made public, his bier brought out, and his body despatched for burial to Dihli. Arrangements were at once made for the enthronement of his successor 3

This enthrouement took place at Bidyāpur% on the 15th Zū,l Qa'dah 1131 H. (28th September, 1719)and Roshan Akhtar was proclaimed under

I Shiū Dās, 326. A newly-conferred' khila't was worn for twenty-four hours, and nothing was allowed to be put on over it.

% Rustam 'Alī, Tārīkh-i-hindī, fol. 237a, says the prince was brought from Dibli in three days, travelling in a boat down the Jamnah.

3 Kāmwar Khān, 211; Khāfi Khān, II, 840.

4 From the tabsildar's report kindly obtained for me by Mr. Reynolds, as already stated, I find that there is a place Tājpur, four miles west of Bidyāpur. From the name, and the fact that the village is a perpetual mu‘āfi, I infer that Tājpur may be the actual place of enthronoment.

the titles of Abul Fath, Nāşir-ud-din, Muhammad Shah, Bādshāh, Ghāzi. He was a handsome and, at that time, fairly intelligent young man, and having been born at Ghazni on the 23rd Rubi I 1114 H. % (16th August, 1702), was now in his eighteenth (lunar) year. Coin was issued and the Khutbah read in his name; and it was directed that the commencement of the reign should be antedated, and fixed from the removal of Farrukhsiyar from the throne. All other arrangements were continued as in the last two reigns, and no new appointments were made. All the persons surrounding the sovereign were as before the nominees of the two Sayyads, and Himmat Khān continued as. before to act as tutor and guardian. Muhammad Shāh deferred to him in everything, and asked of him permission to attend the public prayers on Friday or to go out shooting. On the march men in the confidence of the Sayyads surrounded the young emperor and prevented any access to him.

SECTION 2.--TERMS MADE WITH JAI SINGH.

It was now given out that the emperor, after worshipping at the tomb of Shekh Salim, Cishti, in Fathpur, would march on to Ajmer and visit the shrine of Mu'in-ud-din Cishti. The hidden motive was to overawe Rājah Jai Singh who, since the removal of Farrukhsiyar, had been at little pains to conceal bis hostile intentions. He had received some aid in money from the Rānā of Udepur, as is shown by his letter to that prince's minister, dated the 4th Bhādoņ Sambat 1776 (9th Angust, 1719), wherein he asserts that Nizām-al-mulk had started from Ujjain and Chabelah Rām had crossed the Jamnah at Kālpi, both of which statements were false. When he learnt of the rising at Āgrah, he came out from his capital, Amber, with much ostentation. Following the Rajput custom when resolved on death or victory, he and his men had clothed themselves in saffron raiment and sprinkled their heads with green grass. He announced publicly that he had bestowed the city of Amber on the Brahmans as a sacred gift (dān and arthân). He had marched as far as parganah Todah Tānk, about eighty miles south-west of Āgrah, and there waited to see which way events would turn. He was watched by a force under Sayyad Dilāwar 'Ali Khān, which barred his further advance northwards..

I Tārīkh-i-Muzaffarī, 166. But Ghņlām 'Alī Khān, Muqaddamah-i-Shāh 'Alamnāmah, 45a, states that on the 3rd Jāinādi II, 1134 A. (20th March, 1722), the style was changed from " Abul Fath” to “Abul Muzaffar."

% The Tarikh-e-Muzaffari has the 22nd Rabi' I, and Khushḥāl Cand, Berlin Ms. 493, fol. 9952, the 24th. The latter writer gives a chronogram of six lines, of which the last is :

Khudeo-s-gaihān-parwar" (1114) khudāe kard ījād. 8 Kámwar Khān, 213; Khushḥāl Cand, Berlin Ms. No. 495, fol. 995a has, for date, "middle of Zü,l Qa'dah.

4 He was further encouraged in his hostility by Tahavvar Khān, Turānī, Şalā. biit Khān, the late Mir Ātash, Rūḥullah Khān, and the other refugees from Dihli already referred to.

Mahārājah Ajit Singh had offered himself as mediator, but his leisurely procedure, protracted in the way usual to him and his fellowrājahs, did not accord with the fiery temperament of Husain 'Ali Khān It was with a view to bring this matter to a head that an advance from Fathpur Sikri towards Ajmer was proposed. A few marches were made to places in the neighbourhood, but no real start was attempted. The camp was between Malikpur and Muminābad on the 24th Zū,1 Qa'dah (7th October, 1719) and here Ņusain ‘Ali Khān came in from Fathpur to pay his respects. Another stage was travelled on the 26th (9th October).3

On the 1st Zū,l Hijjah (14th October, 1719) the emperor's mother, now styled Nawāb Qudsiyah, and other women of the harem, who had been sent for from Dihli arrived in camp. The Begam had acted most warily, avoiding everything that could arouse the suspicions of the Sayyads. When the messengers of the Sayyads came to Dilhi to fetch her son, she bestowed on them, on the men who were to accompany him, and on all office-holders at Dihli, the customary dresses of honour. But learning that this assumption of authority had displeased the Sayyads, she sent away all subsequent applicants. In the same manner, when she arrived in camp, she warned all persons who had any connection with her late husband, Jabān Shāh, to abstain from appearing on the road to greet or escort her. She studied the susceptibilities of the Sayyads in every particular. A sum of fifteen thousand rupees monthly was set apart for her expenses and those of the other women.

1 I read gyähe, "grass," in Muhammad Qāsim, but Tod, I, 506, speaks of their wearing on such occasions the maur or bridal crown, which is probably much the same thing in other words—John Christian, "Behar Proverbs," p. 197, No. 426, tells us that the bridegroom's head-dress" is made of talipot leaves and in some places of date (palm) leaves." That it is sometimes actually made of grass may be inferred from W. Crooke's "Tribes and Castes of the N.-W. Provinces," Vol. II, p. 62, sixth line from foot.

S Muḥammad Qāsim, Lāhorī, 282, 297, Tod, “ Annals," I, 380.

8 Muḥammad Qāsim, Lāhori, 294. There is a Malikpur about five miles east of Fathpur, Indian Atlas, Sheet 50; Muminābād, I am unable to trace. 4 Kāmwar Khān, 214, Khāfi Khān, II, 841.

J. 1.8

As the negociations with Jai Singh were still in progress and no satisfactory terms could be arranged, Ajit Singh, who was extremely anxious to return home, offered to visit Jai Singh in person on his way to Jodhpur. Accordingly he was dismissed to his home, and on the 2nd Zū,l Hijjah (15th October, 1719) the report came in that three days before (12th October), Jai Singh had quitted Todah on his return to Amber. The fugitive nobles, Tahavvar Kbān, Şalābat Khân, and Rūḥullah Khān, were at his request pardoned and left with him unmolested. The great persuasive in his withdrawal was the large sum of money that he received. Some say the amount was as much as twenty lakhs of rupees. This money was paid to him on the plea that it was required to buy back Amber from the Brahmans. To the public it was announced as a gift on his marriage with the daughter of Ajit Singh, to whom he had long been betrothed. As part of these negociations Rajah Jai Singh obtained the government of Sarkar Sorath (Sūbah Ahmadābād). But the rest of Aḥmadābād remained under Ajit Singh, with the addition of the whole of Ajmer. That rājah's formal appointment to the latter şübah was announced on the 23rd Zū,l Hijjah (5th November, 1719.) In this way the country from a point sixty miles south of Dībli to the shores of the ocean at Sürat was in the hands of these two rājahs, very untrustworthy sentinels for the Mughals on this exposed frontier.1

SECTION 3.-THE EMPEROR MOVES FROM FATẠPUR TO ĀGRAH.

From the date of bis arrival in camp, 11th Zü,l Qa'dah (24th September, 1719) until the 20th Zū,l Hijjah, Muhammad Shāh had never moved far from Fathpur Sikri. He kept the 'īd festival (10th Zal Hijjah) in his tents at Fathpur, and visited the tomb of Shāh Salim, Cishtī, at that place on the 14th of the same month. On the 20th he started for Āgrah, and three days later (5th November, 1719) he camped at Tālāb Kelā Nāth. On the 15th Muharram 1132 H. (27th November, 1719) quarters were taken up for a few days at the palace within the fort of Āgrab, but on the 2nd Şafar (14th December, 1719) the emperor returned to his tents at his former encampment. At this time Sayyad Dilāwar 'Ali Khān, bakhshi of Husain 'Ali Khan's army, was sent towards Jālesar and Sa'dābād in the Dūābah to punish the Jāts, who had lately carried off over one hundred of the imperial camels.

1 Kãmwar Khăn, 214, 216, Khafi Khan, II, 888, Muhammad Qisim, Lahorĩ, 297, Shiū Dās, 32a.

% Kāmwar Khān, 215, Muḥammad Qāsim, Lāhorī, 2nd recension, 402.

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