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As already mentioned,' there had been for several years a dispute between Budh Singh, Hāḍā, and his relation Bhim Singh, about the country of Bondi in Rājputānah. Budh Singh who was in possession, had thrown in his lot with Farrukhsiyar and Rājah Jai Singh, Sawãe. Bhim Singh had sided with the minister and his brother. As a reward his restoration was now decided upon, Budh Singh having recently added to his former iniquities by himself assisting Girdhar Bahadur, the rebellious governor of Allahābād, and instigating Chatarsal, Bundelah, to do the same. On the 5th Muḥarram 1132 H. (17th November, 1719) Bhim Singh was sent on this enterprize and Dost Muḥammad Khan, Afghan, of Mālwah was, at the rajah's request, given a high manṣab and placed under his orders. Sayyad Dilawar 'Ali Khan, bakhshi of Husain ‘Ali Khan's army, who had lately returned from his expedition against the Jāts, received orders to proceed to Bondi with a well-equipped force of fifteen thousand horsemen. Gaj Singh of Narwar was also ordered to join. In addition to the avowed object of their march, they carried with them secret instructions to remain on the borders of Malwah until it was known whether their services might not be required in that direction. Bhim Singh had been promised the title of Mahārajah and the rank 7,000, 7,000 horse, with the fish standard, if he took part in a successful campaign against Nizām-ul-mulk in Mālwah.3

On the 3rd Rabi' II, 1132 H. (12th February, 1720) the report was received that Rão Bhim Singh and Dilawar 'Ali Khan had fought a battle with the uncle of Rão Budh Singh, in which their opponent was defeated and slain, along with five or six thousand of his clan.1

1 In the reign of Bahadur Shāh, 1707–1712, not yet printed.

2 Founder of the Bhopal State. At this time he was on bad terms with Nizāmul-mulk, then ṣūbahdār of Mälwah.

3 Khāfi Khăn, II, 844; 4 Khafi Khan, II, 851;

Kämwar Khăn, 216; Khizr Khăn, 41.
Kāmwar Khan, 218.


(Note A. to Section 4, Chapter VII.)

AUTHORITIES.-Tod, II, 507, the Tarikh-i-Muḥammadi, the Ma,āṣir-ul-umarā, II, 323 (Ram Singh), II, 113 (Surjan, Hada), II, 141 (Rae Bhoj), II, 208 (Rão Ratn), II, 260 (Rão Sattarsal), II, 305 (Rão Bhão Singh), III, 453 (Mādhū Singh) III, 509 (Mukand Singh), Tārikh-i-tuḥfah-i-Rajastan, by Mḥd'Ubaidullah (1889).

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Surjan, Hāḍā.

Fourth in descent from Rãe Dewā,
founder of Bondi in 1341 A.D.

Kishn Singh, committed suicide 1088 H. (1677-8).

I Rãe Bhoj, [BONDI]

D. 1016 H., 1607-8.

Received Bondi from Akbar

in the 22nd year (1578 ?).


Rão Ratn

D. 1630-1 at Bālāghāt in the Dakhin.


other II. Mukand Singh, [KOTAH] Killed 8. 1715, 1658 A.D. 25th April.


Bhagwant Singh, III. Jagat Singh, D.s.p. 25th year of 'Alamgir, 1681-2.

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T IV. Pem Singh, deposed after six months (1682).

Kishor (or Krishn)

Killed at Arkāt
8, 1745, 1688 A.D.

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Some Kolarian riddles current among the Mundaris in Chota Nagpur, Bengal.-By REV. PAUL WAGNER, G.E.L. Mission, Purulia.

[Read November 2nd, 1904.]

Since the time when Tickell first described the Ho dialect (J.A.S.B. 1840, Part II p. 997), the investigation into the Kolarian languages has made slow, but steady progress. The grammatical structure of some of the languages generally called "Kolarian" has been elaborated, as that of the Santali, Mundari and Asur languages. As the Kolarian languages were all unwritten the literature of course is very limited still. It consists in its greatest part of translations of the Bible, and the rest of it consists of tracts and some school-books. That certainly adds to a great extent to the knowledge of those languages, but much more has to be done yet.

It is astonishing how little these languages have been influenced by others. The Mundari language, for instance, is spoken now nearly as it was spoken centuries ago. The few foreign (Hindi and Bengali and a few other) words which are found here and there, are satisfactorily explained by the wanderings of this tribe. They came on their way into contact with other nations and adopted a few words and phrases and perhaps even some ideas from them. But on the whole that increase is very little, and when we hear a Mundari speaking to-day, we may be sure he speaks the language of his forefathers, and expresses bis feelings and his ideas, as they did. One would certainly fail to understand these people, if one does not try to learn directly from them.

Most certainly they want education, and education alone can eusure that they are not absorbed by other natives. They have up to date kept separate from others and that shows that they have a right to exist, and so we have, when teaching them, at the same time to learn from them. Only thus they can develop, otherwise they will certainly degenerate. Who can deny that education very often has proved a curse instead of a blessing, and just in such measure as the teacher did not understand the pupil? The way of education is not the same for all, and education can further only if it leads to organic growth, if it develops: otherwise it will be a strange element and will only be a means of destroying the good which really exists; instead of a naturally grown plant, forced flowers will be produced, which have no long life and are destitute of the natural fragrance.

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It is worth while to gather unwritten material; to bring such a contribution is the intention of the following pages.

On investigation I found amongst the Mundari-speaking people a great predilection for puzzling questions of their own. Most of them sound so strange that they can scarcely be understood without explánation. Some may have been accepted from other tribes, but those which seemed to me to be doubtful in their origin, have been excluded. I give here a collection of 100, a number which could easily be doubled.

The horizon is very limited: the house, the field, the daily work, animals, plants, trees, the weather and the sky, that is nearly all they speak about; yet interesting, though sometimes very strange, are the comparisons they use.

1. Question.-Honkō parpir, enga The children fly away, the mother ṭeṭeya ?

remains ?

Answer-Jō; jdaru.

2. Q.-Engate dō lapua, honte
dō dagumā ?

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5. Q.-Sirmare goṭkōā, udarkōā ?


4. Q.-Dubmē diṛrā, disuming Sit down; fat fellow, I go fur

ther to the country?

honortingtana ? A.-Kakru.

The cucumber (it is spoken to by the creeper.)

Above (lit. in heaven) flocks, beneath (lit. on earth) they gather them (as they gather the cows and sheep at noon and at sunset, to drive them home, in flocks) ?

The flower of the Mahua tree.

The blood is sweet, the flesh bitter?

The flower of the Mahua tree.

goṭkōā, otere

The fruit; the tree.

The mother (is) weak, the child strong ?

A bulbiferous plant; the withering herb being the weak mother, the bulk the strong child.


6. Q.-Mayom dō sibilā, jilu dõ

haṛadā ?

The lamb is lying down (has been. tied), the string (scil. by which it has been tied), is ascending? The cucumber.

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