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grand hierarch of Sakya. Such liberality on the part of a monarch was unexampled in the world's history. The Emperor not only assigned the revenue of the whole country for the service of the Church but also kept its government under his direct control for ensuring peace and prosperity to the Land of the Lamas.
In the beginning of the year earth-dragon two Commissioners, named Akon and Mingling were deputed by the Emperor to make an official enumeration of the people of Tibet. They, with the help of Ponchen Çakya Zangpo, the chief Governor of Tibet, who was invested with the decorations and title of Zam-du-gun Wen-hu for his eminent services, took the first census of Tibet. They enumerated all the families residing in the provinces from Ngah-ri to Shalu in Tsang, and Governor Situ Akyi-get worked in the remaining provinces.
Upper Tibet, comprising the valleys of the higher Indus and Sutlej which was divided into three kor or circles and therefore, called Ngah-ri Kar-sum,1 returned altogether 2,635 families, exclusive of 767 families residing within the territories of the Ngah-Dag, the hereditary chieftain of Ngah-ri who claimed his descent from king Srong-tsan-Gampo. In the southern districts of La-toi Lhopa, there were 1,088 families, while the northern districts, called La-toi chang returned 2,250 families.
The total of families in Ngah-ri and Tsang was 15,690, and that of the province of Û (Central Tibet), including Kongpo, was 20,763, giving a grand total of 36,453. The population of Yam Dôk (lake Palti districts), which was at this time divided into six Leb and estimated at 750 families, was excluded from the above total. So also all the lands held by the different monasteries were not included in the state list which was made for the levying of revenues. A separate enumeration of the families contained in them was made. In Chumig Thikor there were 3,021 families; under Shalu 3,892 families. The ChangDôk, including lake Teng-ri-nor or Nam-tsho, till then not being included in any of the Thikor, was left out in the Census.
Mang-khar and Til-chen owned 120 families; Tsangpa, 87 families; were included in the three Cholkha. All the countries lying between Gang-thang in Ngah-ri and Sog-la Kyavo were included in what was called Choikyi Cholkha ¿e., the division or province of Buddhism. The provinces between Sog-la Kyavo and Machu (Hoangho) headwaters formed the 2nd Cholkha, the place of black-headed men. The countries lying between Machu and Gya Chorten Karpo, the gate of the great wall where there was a white chorten, were included in the third Cholkha, the original home of the horse.
1 Parang, with the mountains of Kangri, formed one kor or circle. Gugé with numerous defiles and rugged cliffs, formed one kor. Mang-Yul, with its mountain streams and glaciers formed one kor.
Bodong-riseb, 77 families; and Tomolung, Rasa, Kha-gangpa, 75 families; Dopeh mar-wa, 125 families; 35 families belonged to the service of the cathedral of Lhasa, in which the central image of Buddha the historical chovo or Lord Çakya-muni was located; Rasa-na-kor possessed 30 families, and Marla Thangpa only ten families.
Washi-lago returned 131 families, Gya-mapody contained 50 families, Thang-tsha, 150 families, and Tshong-dui 114 families. Within the division of Geru, including Sakya, Latoi-lho, Kodeh, Do-chung and Yahru, there were 3,630 families. Dangra and Durminyeg contained altogether 30 families.
In the province of U:-Under Di-khung monastery there were 3,630 families, consisting of agricultural and pastoral people called pyopa and Dôk-pa. Under the Tshal-pa Lamas there were 3,702 families. Phog-modu monastery returned 2,438 families, Yazang-pa contained 3,000 families. Gya-ma-wa and Cha-yul jointly returned 5,850 families. Sam-ye and Chim-phu-pa possessed 20 families exclusive of those who resided in the ancient endowments. In Doh there were 70 families. Gung-Khor-pa and Thangpa returned 70 families. Under the Lhasa authorities there were 600 families.
Rab-tsun-pa returned 90 families and the Dûk-pa authorities of Ralung returned 225 families. The Thang-po-che returned 50 families.
In the district of Du-gu gang and Kharagpo there were 232 and 88 families respectively. This earliest enumeration of the people of Tibet (Û and Tsang) made during the first establishment of political relations between China and the grand hierarchs of Sakya, was obtained from a manuscript roll of daphne paper which contained the seal of the first Pon-chen, named Çakya Zangpo, by the author of the book called Gya-poi Kyi Yig-tshang (records of China and Tibet) in the archives of Sakya and preserved in his book.
During the reigns of Khublai Khan's successors, in land and revenue matters, a clear distinction was made between state and church possessions. At the commencement of the reign of Thakwan Themur, the last Emperor of the Yen or Tartar dynasty, Commissioners Tha-gu Anugan and Kechogtai Ping-chang were deputed to take a general census of Tibet. They were assisted by Ponchen Shon-nu Wang in his second administration of that country. The enumeration of men and households was made in the following manner :
In order to be counted as a hordu-a Tartar family was required to possess the following:
1. A house supported at least by six pillars within its four walls. 2. Land for cultivation comprising an area over which 100 to 1,000lb. of seed-grain could be sown.
3. Husband and wife, together with all the junior brothers who shared with the husband the wife's bed, two children, and a pair of domestic servants-in all even or more.
4. Cattle-one milch cow, one heifer, a pair of plough bullocks, one he-goat and 12 she-goats, one ram with 12 ewes.
These four heads completed the qualifications of a Tibetan family for paying revenue to the state for the lands it held under Government. Such a family was called Hordu, from hor, Tartar nomad and du smoke. From the top-hole of a Tartar tent issued the smoke of cooking which gave the name of hordu to the owner of the tent. Though the term Pyodu signified a Tibetan agriculturist's house or family, the two words afterwards became mixed up. The word tsa-du a settled family paying revenue, also became mixed up with the other two terms. Fifty such Hordu formed a Tāgo.
Two Tago made a gya-kor (circle of 100 families).
Ten gya-kor formed a tong-kor (circle of 1,000 families).
Ten tong-kor formed one Thikor or Thikhor (a circle of 10,000 families).
The population of Tibet proper was originally estimated at a million and three hundred thousand souls, out of which 22,000 belonged to the church. Tibet was originally divided into 13 Thikoron, each Thikor containing circles average 10,000 families or at least 100,000 souls. A Thipon (chief over 10,000) was appointed over every Thikor.
Ten Thikor formed one Lu.
Ten Lu formed one Shing. Under Emperor Khublai there were eleven such Shing, outside of China, over which he ruled from his capital Taitu (Peking). The three great provinces of Tibet, then designated under the name of Chlokha-sum, did not form even one Shing; yet, out of courtsey, and because it was the headquarters of Buddhism, the Emperor permitted Tibet to be counted as a Shing.
From every full Thikor Government permitted about 1,000 males to be drawn to the church to be monks for whose support one-sixth of the revenue was made a present of to the hierarchs of Sakya.
It is also stated that in the year fire-hog, twenty years after the first census, two Commissioners, named Hosha and Oonukhan, were deputed by the great Yamen of Peking to make a more correct enumeration of the inhabitants of Tibet. Their labours were embodied in a voluminous work called Losal kungah gyan Rin Theng.
In the Debter (official records) compiled by Du-wensha, Shon-nugon, and one of the ministers of Sakya, the following accounts occur:— Tibet was divided into districts and sub-districts called Jam-chen (larger district) and Jam-chung (smaller district). The province of
Tsang, together with Ngah-ri, was divided into four Jam-chen. Every Jam-chen was divided among 100 Go, or headmen. Sakya was constituted into a separate Jam-chen; South Marla thang was formed into a Jam-chúng, Shab-khar Ngah-ri, Gyam-ring, and Pong-len, each formed a Jam-chung.
The last, i.e., Ponglen, was constituted into what is called Mag-jam, districts for military purpose yielding revenue. The Jam-chung Mansarawara was held by the authorities of Purang.
Of the 3,892 families of Shalu, 832 were made over to the Chyrogtshang-pa, 3,060 were included in Tshong-din. So Shalu monastery was made dependent of Tshong-dui authorities. Chyarog tshang was placed under 28 Tago. The Shang districts which were included in Tag-jam, were placed under eleven Tago. Yamdôk was divided into 16 leb. The Jam-chung of Yarsreb was held by the Yamdôk authorities.
The following jam wore formed in Û :—
1. Gopeh jam included Diklûng, with 3,000 hordu.
2. Dar jam included Chya-yul, with 2,650 hordu.
3. Tshal-pai Retsa contained 450 families.
4. Sog-jam, in addition to its strength of 2,650 Gyamapa (mixed Tibetan and Chinese) families, included Tshalpa Zung khar, and thereby possessed 3,000 families.
5. Tsi-mar jam included Phag-modu with 2,438 hordu, Satag with 500 and Lhasa 600 families.
6. Sha-po jam comprising Tugu ganj, Kharag Dûkpa, Tama Thang-pa had 200 families. Holkha-pa possessed 400 families.
7. Kong-Jam, including Yah zang, contained 3,000 families.
NOTE-The numeration of these articles is continued from p.. 381 of the
26. Akbar's Copper Coins of Ahmadābād. (With plate).
In the five years that have elapsed since my article on "The Coins of Aḥmadābād " was written for the Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, considerable additional material has come to light, thus rendering it possible for me now to supplement, and in some few particulars to modify, the account then given. Only the other day I noticed for the first time that the Akbari Fulūs struck at Aḥmadābād in the Ilahi years 41 and 42, though of identical type with that of Ilahi 39, differed from my copper coins of Ilahi 40. These last, on the other hand, were not Fulūs at all but Tankas of the same type as the coins struck in Ilahi 44 and 46. This discovery set me on a thorough reexamination of all the specimens now in my possession, with the resultant conviction that the copper coins assigned in the aforementioned article to the year 40 had been misread, and should have been attributed to the years 45 (the ♫♪ =45, not 40). In order to rectify this mistake and the errors consequent upon it, and with a view to bringing under contribution the most recent information on the subject, I now submit the following description of the Akbari copper coins of Aḥmadābād :— The copper coins that issued from the Aḥmadābād Mint in the name of the Emperor Akbar were of three kinds-the Fulūs, the Tanka and the Tanki or Tănki. All were round coins, and each bore on its obverse its distinctive designation.
A. THE FUlūs.
Whole Fulus: weight, 320 grains: diameter, '85 to 9 inch.
Of the Fulus three varieties were successively current.
I. The Fulūs struck on Akbar's subjugation of Gujarat in H. 980 bore the following legends (Fig. 1):
but this variety was issued only during the years H. 980 and 981. A half Fulus of this type is in Mr. Nelson Wright's cabinet.