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to the town, but camels and mules are employed in longer journeys. In Puklee many mules are used. The internal trade of Toorkistan is chiefly by ponies and horses. In some parts of the east asses are much used, but in Keerategin men transport the greater quantity of goods. Nor is that species of carriage peculiar to this country, but is known in Budukhshan, Durwaz, Kushmeer, and in the countries within the great mountains which bound India to the north. A considerable proportion of the goods carried from Peshawur to Kashkur through Bajour or Punjokhora are for some distance conveyed on the backs of men; it is needless to observe that the roads are of the most difficult kind.
162. The animal most commonly used for ploughing in these countries is the ox, and in some of them no other is used. A circumstance which greatly recommends them, is that no other servant is required besides the drivers, whereas for all the other animals a man is required to lead. On the other hand, a single bullock is but very seldom found equal to this work; but where the soil is light, a horse or camel is sufficient, these have also the merit of greater celerity, which may in some cases be much required in farm management. Accordingly horses
are in part used over most of the open parts of Toorkistan, and by the Ymaks. In Muro scarcely any other animal is used. The use of horses in the plough, perhaps, extends to some of the other parts of the north of Khoorasan, but in all other quarters of that vast country it seems unknown, and in the other countries under review, I presume very few instances of it are to be seen. The Khirghizes plough on the Pamer chiefly by means of bullocks of the Tibet species, already mentioned, but in other quarters they use camels. The Kuzzaks employ camels almost solely. The Tureens and Buruhes use both camels and bullocks. A proportion of camels is used in certain parts of the Kokur dominions, and a few in Seeweestan. In Beekaneer and the neighbouring countries, camels are used, but not so much as bullocks. It may be presumed that camels are much employed in the warm parts of Bulochistan, but among the hills bullocks are almost solely yoked. In the neighbourhood of Mooks and Abilazee, places in the road between Candahar and Ghuznee, it is not uncommon to see the fields, which are commonly light, but with a mixture of stone, under plough by a couple of asses. In Seeweestan two asses are sometimes yoked.
163. Bullocks most commonly draw water, whether it be fetched up by a rope and leathern bucket, or by the action of a wheel. Yet are camels sometimes used in the country of Beekaneer, and in others in or near the Indian desert, and always with good effect, one bringing up the bucket from the deepest wells. The Toorkmuns near the Oxus,
water their fields (for they are not ignorant of agriculture) by raising water from cuts which are made from that river, and in this operation they usually prefer the wheel, with a band of water pots, and yoke camels. Such wheels are, towards India, sometimes seen turned by buffaloes. In such quarters of Toorkistan as horses are yoked to the plough, they are also made to draw water, and camels are in use for the latter as well as the former. With respect to the treading out corn, the same animals, camels excepted, are used, as in the respective places where they are yoked to the plough, cows however, although useful in treading out, are scarcely so in ploughing. Goats too may sometimes be seen in Pushing, assisting in the former operation; which in Cabul, Khoorasan and Toorkistan is not always effected by the feet only of the animals, but by the addition of some simple machinery.
164. It must excite surprise to learn that carts are unknown in the greater number of these countries. In the line of the Embassy's march to Peshawur, they were found not to extend to the right of the Indus. There are few, perhaps none, in the dominions of Mohummud Khan on this side the river, but to the south they are used in most parts of Sindh as far as we may suppose their use demands. Carts are but little used in Seeweestan, and not at all in any part of Afghanistan, the remainder of Bulochistan or Khoorasan. In a westerly direction we may proceed nearly to the Hellespont before we see any. Neither are any found in Toorkistan on the south of the Oxus (with one exception) Bulochistan, Kashkur, Keerategin, Durwaz, the Pamer, Kushmeer, or most parts of the Dooab of the Hydaspes and Indus. In the neighbourhood of Bokhara, Orgunj, Samarkand, and Kokur alone are carts used in Toorkistan beyond the Oxus. In Bokhara they are not employed for all the purposes they are applicable to. In this particular, as almost all others, our information is very scanty respecting Chinese Toorkistan. I have been lately informed that carts are very much used in that quarter, and some have as many as six horses yoked to them. The Chinese in Yarkund and the other cities use buggies and tandems, not unlike those of the English, hence there is some probability that the use of the humble, but more useful species of wheeled carriages is not unknown. In most parts of Toorkistan, and probably in many other quarters, great use is made in rural operations. of a machine which seems to be a sledge.
(To be continued.)
ART. III.Journal of a Mission from the Supreme Government of India to the Court of Siam.
December 18th.-At half past 1 P. M. left Maulmain. My baggage and presents for the Court of Siam in three boats; and at half past 2 P. M. halt ten minutes at Neaung-ben-tseik, when having ascertained that the elephants (six), which are to meet me at Nat-Kyning, had started about 8 o'clock, we proceeded with the flood tide in a south-easterly direction up the Attran river, passed the villages of Nantay, Keik-poron, Keik-mo-rong, Peikh-hnay-cong, Kan-ta (or Kanaumy), Being-beo, and at 6 o'clock halted for the night at Keik-mare. The banks of the river, which winds considerably through an alluvial country, have been low and wooded throughout the day.
December 19th.-At half past 2 A. M. left Keik-mare with the morning's flood, and continuing the same course as yesterday, passed several rocky (lime?) hills, and at 8h. 45m. halted for breakfast at the village of Attran, near the old city of that name. The neighbourhood of this village is said to be favourable for cotton cultivation, and the teak forests commence in detached clumps on the right, or eastern bank of the river, about Pa-baung, (a village inhabited by Shan elephant hunters), a short way below it. Complaints are said to have been made to the court of Bankok of the number of elephants stolen from that kingdom, a little north and east of the capital, and sold into our territory; some of these hunters have been summoned to Bankok, others have been recalled by the chief of Timmay, to which place the majority of them belong, and the rest are said to be preparing to follow them in the meantime, strict orders have been issued by the court of Bankok, prohibiting the exportation of elephants from Yahine, (the southernmost of the Laos towns), and the country to the southward. Left Attran at 11 a. M., and at 1 P. M. enter the Zimee river, where it is joined by the Wengeo, their united streams forming the Attran. The Zimee is exceedingly tortuous in its course, the different reaches running to every point of the compass. At 2h. 25m. P. M. halt for dinner, having come from Attran against the stream, which is very sluggish at this season; 4h. 15m. start again with the flood, and reach Kea-en (lotus lake) at 10 P. M., here we halted for the night; the inhabitants of the village are Kareens, who have fled from the oppression of the Birmans in the last year.
December 20th.-Left Kea-en at 8 A. M. on the flood, and reach Nat-Kyeaung, at 10 A. M., where we got the things out of the boats, and
wait for the elephants which have not arrived. Nothing can be more uninteresting than the banks of the Attran and Zimee, winding to every point in the compass, through an alluvial soil with banks of considerable depth, and covered with rich arborescent vegetation to the water's edge. After passing the villages on the first day, nothing is to be seen from the boats except an occasional solitary alligator, gnanah, king-fisher, or snake bird. We met three rafts of timber, in all about 260 pieces, floating slowly down the stream. The river though of great depth, having upwards of three fathoms opposite our halting place, can discharge only a very small quantity of water from the small declivity in its channel, consequent sluggishness of its course, and great height to which the tide reaches up it. Though the most productive river in the provinces in teak, its timber, particularly that of the lower part of the river and near its banks, is held in less esteem than the Irrawadie or the Malabar timber; the depth and great richness of its soil promoting its more rapid growth, and hence diminishing its strength and elasticity; our people have however in the last year overcome some difficulties in the Memlunghe river, which have opened a mine of wealth to the provinces in the splendid teak of that river and the upper Salween, if the Siamese government throw no obstacles in the way.
December 21st.-The elephants arrived to-day at noon, having been detained half a day by one of them following a herd of wild ones in the night; we have been employed apportioning their loads, and preparing for an early start to-morrow. The tigers are said to be exces
sively bold in this part of the forest.
December 22nd.-Goonghe-let-tet, 5h. 50m., sixteen miles. Started at 7h. 40m. A. M. leaving the banks of the Zimee, and travelling along a well trodden path used by the timber cutters, reach the Kareen village, Nat Kyeaung, of ten houses, at 8h. 35m., where we were detained an hour in endeavouring to procure guides, all the Kareens declaring they knew nothing of the country a mile south-east of their own village. I had unfortunately no one with me who spoke their language, and though they all spoke Talines, and many of them Birman, they are only to be properly managed in their own language; and it is not to be wondered at, for they have never had any communication with their neighbours for ages, except to be oppressed or cheated. We at last prevailed on three of them to accompany us, who brought us safely to this halting place, protesting to the last that they knew nothing of the road. At 10h. 15m. cross a small nameless stream. 11h. 15m. Goongalay, another stream. 12h. 5m. cross the small stream of
Danoung. From 1h. 5m. till 2h. 5m. travel up the bed of a small stream, then cross the Thaybue; and at 2h. 20m. halt on the bank of a small feeder of the Goonghe, a considerable stream, on the banks of which there was formerly a town of the same name; it runs through a rich and level teak tract, and the timber is floated down it in the monsoon into the Zimee. The path has been good throughout, level and dry at this season, and even in the rains must be very passable; there is but little teak timber near the path, none good, and no sign of inhabitants after leaving Nat-Kyeaung. The soil a rich alluvion, well adapted for the cultivation of coffee and cotton.
December 23rd.-Goonghe, 5h. 40m., eleven miles. Left the last ground at 8h. 10m., and almost immediately entered a teak forest; the trees were nearly all killed for felling, generally of small scantling, interspersed with other trees, and an underwood of small bamboos; the soil generally hard, with small nodules of iron-stone in the paths, which form little water courses in the rains. None of our party knew the proper road, the Kareens to whom I trusted as on former occasions persist in denying all knowledge of the roads in this direction; the head elephant driver having been employed here in dragging timber, had a general knowledge of the forest, we were consequently obliged to put ourselves under his guidance, and with the elephants in front making a road where there was none, reached this halting place, on the banks of the Goonghe mentioned yesterday. The water in it this season, is here twenty paces across. One of the coolies was taken ill with fever yesterday, soon after passing the Kareen village, and as he has not come up, I hope he has returned there. Ten or twelve traders of those who started with us, unable to keep up, are encamped three or four miles in the rear, and as our means of carriage are limited and no rice procurable, or village to be seen for seven or eight days, our want of rice will hurry us on as fast as the elephants can march. I have sent the Siamese interpreter, one mahout, two Kareens, and two bearers for rice, and a guide to the wood cutters in the forest, about six miles westerly of our halting place. The path is nearly a dead level, in some places broad and clear, in others there is scarcely any traces of it; at one time for an hour and a half, had to cut our way through a bamboo jungle; passed two small streams, feeders of the Goonghe, and two small lakes in the course of the march.
December 24th.-Metakut-let-tet, 2h. 50m., seven miles. Were detained looking after one of the elephants till 11h. 10m. at the last ground, and had then to force our way, nearly the whole march, through an underwood of low bamboos, without any signs of a path,