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135th. The assessment is light. It has been collected now for two years without any balance, or the smallest difficulty. In June of each year, the whole demand for the Fussly year, beginning on the 1st of October, has been collected.
136th. There is no reason to believe that the boundary work has been otherwise than well done, and that thoroughly. A few cases about which doubts existed, have since been examined and put to rights.
137th. The rights of proprietors and rent rates have been generally recorded, but the complete form, subsequently introduced, was not then in use. Voluntary agreements were not then entered into by the proprietors, and the partition of the waste land in each village amongst the several co-parceners has not been so thoroughly done here as elsewhere. The rule of partition has always been fixed, but that rule has not yet been universally carried into effect.
138th. The survey and settlement of Pergunnah Belhabans were completed in the same season of 1834-5. The survey was conducted under the immediate superintendence of Lieut. Fordyce, then an Assistant to Capt. Simmonds, and was executed in a superior manner. The Pergunnah is held by one large brotherhood of Bais Rajpoots, who agreed to their Jumma in the gross, and distributed it themselves equally on every beegah of cultivation throughout. This singular proceeding was prevented from falling unequally on the several members of the communities, from the circumstance of the property of each being scattered about different Mouzahs, and in the mode generally known as khet khut, so that every man had land of each sort. It must however be borne in mind, that this measure has produced a very unequal village assessment, as those which have poor lands are taxed equally with those that contain good lands. Each Mehal must always be held responsible for its Jumma, not each Mouzah.
139th. The assessment is light, but some difficulty will always be experienced in collecting it, for the people are very unruly, and bear a bad reputation in the district. They are said, it is to be feared with reason, to harbour thieves and bad characters of all descriptions, and no doubt to participate in their gains.
140th. Something is wanting in the Pergunnah in working out the principle laid down at the time of settlement regarding the division of the waste land in each village amongst the several Puttees. This has not been regularly enforced, and no doubt cases exist, where an actual partition is necessary, and ought to be immediately carried through.
141st. Pergunnah Deogaon was surveyed by Mr. Terraneau in the season of 1834-5, and settled by myself in 1835-36.
142nd. The boundaries were very well laid down by the Native Deputy Collector, Seyud Nawazish Ali, and the very respectable Tuhsildar, Meer Muxood Ali. The villages were so much broken and intermixed, that this was a work of no ordinary difficulty. It was done not only completely, but with the fewest possible complaints, either on the score of partiality or unnecessary expense.
143rd. This Pergunnah was unfortunately chosen as the one in which a new survey party commenced its operations. The villages often consisted of broken fragments of land, some larger, some smaller, some mere fields, others tracts of cultivated and uncultivated land, scattered about at considerable distances from each other. The only way to survey those villages satisfactorily would have been to make certain defined circuits in different directions, of the ordinary size of villages, and corresponding as nearly as convenient with existing boundaries, to have surveyed the same circuits professionally, and by native Ameens, and after thus testing the accuracy of the latter, to have taken out from the native field maps the several fields or parcels of land constituting each village, and to have added these up as giving the total area. This however was seldom attempted, and where it was tried, was done so incorrectly as to be nugatory. The native measure. ments were frequently approved, and passed as agreeing with the professional, when the areas surveyed were totally different. The professional survey itself is often grossly incorrect, both in its representation of the cultivation, and its delineation of the boundaries. The native maps have received scarcely any check, several of them are scarcely intelligible, and in many fields belonging to different persons, different Puttees, and even different Mehals, have been grouped together in one number.
144th. I have done what I could to remedy this state of things, by examining the boundaries, making additional native maps where necessary, distributing the fields and holdings afresh. Such inaccuracies in the professional maps as I happened to meet with, were noted on their face, but I well know that there are many which must have escaped me. The total areas were taken from the professional survey, so that the total of the Pergunnah, according to the survey, and according to the settlement papers will agree, but the areas of the several villages will often differ considerably, owing to the adjustments which were found
necessary. 145th. This Pergunnah was the highest assessed in the district, and very little increase on the former settlement could be anticipated. Not only was the rate of the former Jumma on the land high, but the land itself is inferior in quality to that of other parts of the distriet, yielding mostly very uncertain rice crops, and the Zemindars are numerous, each holding a small portion of Seer land on which he subsists, whilst from being Rajpoots of high caste, they are unthrifty cultivators. The main object in the settlement was to equalize the assessment, and much has been done towards this. The settlement has perhaps given more satisfaction than any other in the district, and this result was mainly attributable to the impartial, upright, and very conciliatory conduct of the Tuhsildar.
146th. In estimating the character of the settlement by the averages, it must be borne in mind that the cultivated area has certainly been under-measured, and that no land has been put down by the professional survey under the head of culturable. Whatever was not under the plough, or had not evidently been so within the two or three preeeding years, was classed as barren waste.
147th. The record of proprietary rights has been carefully, and well done by the Tuhsildar. The Persian papers are very complete, though the English statements have not been as yet drawn out in the form best adapted to elucidate the peculiar tenures of the Pergunnah. These however are now in a course of preparation, on a plan prescribed by the Sudder Board of Revenue subsequently to the conclusion of the proceedings. No difficulty will be experienced in giving the materials any form which may be thought most expedient.
148th. Pergunnah Mahol was surveyed by Lieutenant Fordyce, in the seasons 1834-5 and 1835-6, and settled by Mr. Montgomery, in the
149th. The boundaries were mostly laid down by the Native Deputy Collector, and by the Tuhsildar, Buksish Ally Khan. The work was not satisfactorily performed. The people are low, and litigious. The Tuhsildar had little experience in the Pergunnah.
150th. The survey was very well conducted, and may be relied upon.
151st. The settlement though showing a high average, is very light, for the land is exceedingly valuable. The finest Sugar land, perhaps, in all India is to be found here.
152. The tenures are simple, being mostly Zemindarry, where the co-parceners held jointly or severally according to their hereditary shares. The point of greatest importance was the formation of good rent rolls to show the rights, holding, and rates of all the non-proprie. tary cultivators. This has been carefully done by Mr. Montgomery, and these relations are now placed on the best footing. The rent rolls, or Jummabundee, were formed after the settlement, drawn up in the common Nagree character, published to those concerned in every possible way, by personal explanation to as many as were present, and by suspension in the village before the eyes of all ; objections against any parts of these were afterwards heard, and orders passed as each case required.
153rd. Pergunnahs Mahomedabad, Gohna, and Mhow were surveyed in the years 1834-5, and 1835-6, and settled by myself in the latter year.
151th. The boundaries were decided and marked off by two Tuhsildars, Ahmed-oolah Khan, and Zuheer-col-huk, who were there successively under the personal superintendence, first of Mr. Montgomery and Mr. Chester, and latterly of myself. These proceedings were unnecessarily protracted, rendered very expensive to the people, and sometimes in the final result unfair. Great exertions have however been used to render them complete, and to correct any errors that may have been committed. The undertaking was of vital importance to the prosperity of the district, for there is much waste land, the title to which was greatly disputed, of great capability, and now covered with wood, which is in high demand at the Sugar factories scattered all over the district.
155th. The boundaries were often erroneously laid down, and little pains taken to reconcile the professional and khusreh maps. The important point to be borne in mind is, that the professional map cannot always in itself, and alone, be held conclusive on the form of a boundary. Before a certain conclusion can be arrived at, the maps of the two continuous Mouzahs must be compared, the proceeding held on the adjudication of the boundaries examined, and reference had to the khusreh maps, and any other sketches of the boundary there may be. If the process be carefully conducted, on the occur. rence of any dispute it will be impossible to fall into any great
156th. The assessment is light, more so than is shown by the averages, for there is good reason to believe that the cultivated land was much under-measured, and the culturable land was avowedly shown as barren waste.
157th. Great exertions were used to make the records of proprietary rights and rent rates as perfect as could be, and sanguine hopes may be entertained, that these are placed on a satisfactory footing.
158th. The Pergunnahs of Gopalpore, Kowreeah, and Atrowleeah . Tilhenee were surveyed by Lieut. Fordyce in 1835-6, and settled by
Mr. Montgomery in 1836-7. Three large Talookahs had however been previously settled by the late Mr. George Bird, in 1831-2, and the arrangement confirmed by the Government. These were incorporated into the present settlement, with no further change than the extension of the period of the lease.
159th. The boundary work was done almost entirely by the Tuhsildar, Sheikh Waheedooz-zuman, with constant supervision and occasional assistance from the Native Deputy Collector, or the European functionaries. It appears to have been very well performed.
160th. The survey was well conducted. These Pergunnahs are undoubtedly the best surveyed in the district.
161st. The assessment is fair and equable. Adverting to the nature and capabilities of the soil, it is low; but if the character of the people and the nature of the tenures is borne in mind, it is quite as high as it ought to be. In comparing the averages of this assessment with those in other Pergunnahs, it must be remembered that here the survey is a Fery faithful representation of the extent and character of the land, and that therefore the rate of assessment is not actually as much below that of the rest as it appears to be. The Zemindars are high caste, pugnacious Rajpoots, and their tenures bhyachara. There are also many Brahmins who hold lands at low rates as under-tenants, and exercise a powerful religious influence over their superstitious landlords. The revenue administration of this district has always been most difficult. The late operations will materially facilitate the collections, but still difficulties must be anticipated. It is only some years of firm and consistent rule, which will suffice to bring the turbulent inhabitants to industrious and regular habits.
162nd. The settlement of Pergunnah Suggree occupied a long period, and was not finally completed till the year 1836-7. Some few settlements were made by Mr. Barlow, under Regulation vii, 1822, but the greatest bulk by Mr. Montgomery, who also recast the prior settlements. The work was completed and reported in 1834, before the introduction of the new system, but the Commissioner judiciously declined forwarding the report then, and desired the whole to be reviewed under the new rule. This was admirably done by Mr. Montgomery.
163rd. The Kishwaree survey was long ago completed by the revenue authorities, so that the Surveyor was relieved from this duty, and desired merely to survey the boundaries, sketching on the geographical features of the country and omitting the interior survey, or that part of the operations which was designed to distinguish the cultivated from the uncultivated lands.
164th. The adjustment of boundaries had formerly, as in Pergunnah Nizamabad, been much mismanaged, but before the approach of the survey these were all definitely settled, and well marked off, so