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that no difficulty was experienced. Some of the decisions may, as in other cases, have been unfair, but the survey is now a faithful record of what the decision was. There can never be any doubt hereafter on that score. The professional operations afforded also a complete and very satisfactory proof of the correctness of the former Khusrey survey. 165th. The assessment is light and equable, and has now for three years been collected without any balance. The record of proprietary rights, &c. has been completed on the plan prescribed, and the settlement is now as perfect as of any other of the district; though it has only been brought to this state at a great expense to the people, and with much personal vexation to them.

166th. Pergunnahs Ghosee and Nuthoopoor were surveyed by Mr. Terraneau in 1835-6, and settled in 1836-7 partly by myself and partly by Mr. Montgomery. The boundary work had been slowly advancing for the preceding year or two, but it was completed by the Native Deputy Collector just previous to the survey. The work was ill done. The large quantity of rich land lying waste about different parts of the Pergunnahs rendered it certainly a task of some difficulty, whilst the wealth and intriguing character of some powerful men in the Pergunnahs added to the difficulty of executing the work with fairness to all parties. The evil, instead of being detected and exposed by the survey, was concealed and aggravated by its operations. Not only were the defects of the demarcation concealed, but where the demarcation was plain and evident, and no dispute whatever existed, errors of the most fatal nature were committed in the survey. Had the professional maps been received and recorded without question, the greatest confusion would have ensued. As it was, the assistance of a professional surveyor was obtained. All the maps were carefully reviewed, compared with each other, with the record of the adjudication of the boundary, and with the Ameen's map. Whenever any doubt existed, a personal examination of the boundary and renewal of the demarcation took place. This was superintended either by myself or by Mr. Montgomery. We always found that adequate decisions had been passed, but that these decisions had not always been clearly marked off. The whole has been now carefully corrected, and no future doubts can well arise, as to the position and direction of the boundary. I am however bound to say, that owing to various causes, which it is needless to enumerate here, the decisions have been more influenced by corrupt motives, and are more unfair, than in any other part of the district.

167th. The assessment is light, and will be easily paid, as the soil is very rich, and there is much fine culturable land, which will

It must also be borne in mind that

rapidly be brought into cultivation. the cultivation has been under-measured. The rights, &c. of the proprietors have been well recorded, and the subsequent separation of shares generally completed.

168th. The settlement of each Pergunnah has been thus reviewed. Under ordinary seasons, and with good management, I have little doubt of the stability of the whole, with the exception of a few villages in Nizamabad.

169th. If the present demand for the staples of the district, Sugar, Opium, and Indigo, continues undiminished for a few years, the advance of the district in wealth and prosperity will be more than repaid. Its welfare will however depend much for the few first years on the firmness of the civil administration. If the arrangements made at the settlement are disregarded, the boundaries violated, the rights of proprietors and cultivators neglected, and misrule allowed to prevail, great confusion will ensue, industry will be checked, and improvement stopped. The effect also will immediately be felt in the collections of the Government revenue. The number of persons from whom these collections are to be made are numerous, and their rights nicely balanced. Each man now knows what he has to pay, and it will be difficult to make the redundancy of one compensate for the deficiency of another. If rights are usurped, the injured party will be deprived of the power of meeting the demand against him, and a balance will accrue. If hereafter balances should arise in the district, it must be remembered that this may be occasioned by mal-administration as well as by other causes, and is more likely perhaps to do so here than in many other parts of the country.

170th. The Tuhsildaree establishment should not be diminished. It is now strong and well disposed, but this is necessary on account of the minute division of property, and the numerous persons from whom the collections have to be made.

171st. Much increase must not be expected to the present demand. The Pergunnah of Deogaon is settled fully as high as it can ever bear. Much good would arise from its being declared perpetual. The same is the case in Gopalpoor, Kororeeah, and Atroleeah Tilhenee. In Mahol, Cheriakote, Belhabans, and Suggree, the assessment has reached its maximum, or so nearly, that further investigation would not be repaid. In Nizamabad there is still much valuable uncultivated land. The total demand from this Pergunnah will probably never be increased, but its readjustment and fresh distribution after the expiration of the present period of settlement would be a great advantage. In Mahomedabad, Mhow, Ghoosee, and Nuthopoor there is still much

valuable waste land, which will probably be made productive in the course of the present lease. Fifty thousand rupees might thus very probably be added to the rent roll of Government on the renewal of the settlement. J. THOMASON,


Agra, December 16th, 1837.

Collector of Azimgurh.

Offy. Secy, to the Lt. Govr., N. W. P.

ART. II.-MR. HODGSON, on Cuculus.

To the Editor of the Journal of the Asiatic Society. SIR,-Amongst the numerous new birds forwarded by me to London, some years back, when I was young enough to imagine that learned Societies existed solely for the disinterested promotion of science, was a very singular form combining all the essential internal and external characters of Cuculus with the entire aspect of Dicrurus.

Unceremoniously as many others of my novelties have been appropriated, this one still, I believe, remains undescribed, and I therefore beg to present to you a description and sketch of it.


Genus Pseudornis nob,

Generic character, essential characters of Cuculus with the entire aspect of Dicrurus. Tail 10, forked. Type Pseudornis Dicruroïdes nob. Habitat. The mountains exclusively. Specific character, Black, with a changeable blue or green gloss. Inner wing and tail coverts, and pair of extreme tail feathers, cross barred with white. An oblique white bar across the wings internally, and high up. Bill black. Iris hoary brown. Palate red. Legs and feet blue. 10 to 10 inches long, whereof the bill

9 16


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is 1 and the tail 5 to 53. Tarsus Long anteal toe 16* Long posteal toe Weight 11 oz. Sexes alike. General manners of Cuculus, but exclusively monticulous and a forester.

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Remark. The bill, tongue, feet, and wings are precisely those of Cuculus canorus, with these trivial diversities—if such they can be reckoned that the wing is hardly so elongated, and the bill is less rounded on the culmen.

The tail consists of ten feathers, and is both in relative size and in form like that of the genus Dicrurus; that is to say, it has ten feathers, and is divaricated and forked, though the fork be not deep.

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