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5. Excellent is that young elephant, who in his immature age, eager to snatch the tender filaments of the lotus, thrusts his proboscis on the section of the moon, fixed on the brow of Siva, and who is struck by MRID'A'NI' (smiling in her anger) with the agitated lotus sprout on her head (9)

6. Truly, in the beginning of the kalpa, the universe proceeded from BRAHMA wishing to create, when he had perceived the eternal void, enveloped in darkness and merely atmosphere. From him, when he had finished, proceeded the air. In that was produced fire; from fire proceeded water; from that prolific cause proceeded Brahma's vast golden egg, streaked with rays of light.

7. By his wisdom, from the two segments of that egg Brahma created his sons, the seven Munis (MARICHI and the rest) the abode

of holiness.

8. Amongst these dark-dispelling, intelligent Munis, was the illustrious ATRI of celebrated greatness; in the cavity of whose eye, was produced the orb of the moon, whose abundant light radiates like luxuriant hair. From him was born his pure son CHANDRATREYA.

9. Who can measure the glory and greatness of that holy man, the beloved image of the Omniscient, pure in soul; of him, who hath assured heaven and beatitude to the whole world, illumined with light, surpassed by his excessive splendor, dispelling all doubt and illusion? 10. From him sprung the wonderful VAYVARYAMA—faultless-naturally upright-of excellent disposition-eminent-unprejudiced — symmetrical from his large upper extremities-not slightly observant of fasts-fruitful to the root,-and never wasted by the spontaneous fire of cruel foes, the votaries of misfortune.(10)

11. As long

as the moon (endures) the sovereigns of the race of Chandratreya illuminate the earth. [The rest of this sloka is wanting.] 12. Reverence to those ancient monarchs through whom the surface encompassed by kings, who were friendly to the faith which has descended down-unvexed even when their lives were begged-strictly adhering to truth-who robbed of vermilion tint, the coronal streaks(11) of the wives of the powerful but rebellious chief

of the earth was


9. DURGA is described as fondling a young Elephant. One of SIVA's names is MRIDA', or delighted; whence his consort is called MRID'A'NI.

10. A double meaning pervades this verse; the epithets have a twofold sense, one applicable to the saint, and one to a tree. It would be impossible to preserve the

double entendre in the translation.

11. The Hindu wife stains the line on the head made by the partition of the hair with red lead. The widow abstains from this and other ornaments.

13. In process of time in this great race the illustrious NANNUKA became sovereign; exalted in panegeric, and radiant with splendor,like a gem amongst pearls.

14. The chariot-borne denizens of the sky were reminded of ARJUNA, by that stalwart bowman, rushing on to destroy his foes and brandishing his strung bow.

15. From him sprang an illustrious son, the sovereign VAG-YATI, of excellent fame-celebrated by the happiness of mankind, and like VAKPATI(12) in the observance of courtesy.

16. By that matchless warrior-whose eye was bright like the snake's-and who was kind to those eminent for learning-the shreds of anecdotes of PRITHUKA and KUNDA were put to shame, when he had dispelled the keen fear of his poet subjects.(13)

17. Of him, (the ornament of the earth) was born a grateful son the illustrious VIJAYA, renowned for victory; on the birth of which magnanimous treasure of greatness, holy garlands with parched corn, (laja) (14) were scattered down by the delighted wives of the im


18. By divine choristers, joined by their earthly companions, was melodiously warbled the bright and exalted glory of the sovereign VIJAYA.

19. Like that snake, who is bent in humility, when made to uphold [the earth] by the son of SUMITRA' (15)—rich in his extended verdant plains-conqueror throughout the world-that lord (skilled to reward his friends) about to subdue the southern quarters, once again in no mimic war, sounds his martial musick.

20. From that monarch, resembling as it were the ocean, was born the amiable king VAHILA, the moon of men; by whom, darkness was dispelled, and who bade pour forth the stream of poet's praise.

21. Innumerable houses became pervaded by brilliant light when the king was pleased; so also the mansions of his enemies, when he was angered.(16)

22. In regard to gems and the wealth of the people Kosa pána in its sense of ordeal, was not known; but in its sense of adhering to the scabbard, was familiar to their swords. Paxapáta, in the sense of

12. A name of VACHASPATI the Guru of the Gods.

13. These are Pauranik Heroes, to whom various feats of valor and generosity are attributed.

14. Laja, vulgarly called Khoi.


16. A double entendre or pun (the rhetorical figure slesh) pervades this Sloka. Indeed an epithet is construed with each of the antithetic members. It is said to be a stalk with two flowers.

loss of plumage, did exist in his capital in respect to arrows; but in the sense of partiality was not obtained by his friendly courtiers.(17)

23. From him, by the blaze of whose intense glory, great kings were consumed like cotton-from him, graced with every eminent virtue, who robbed of their renown wide spreading trees-was born, for the delight of mankind, that SRI HARSHA,—a gem dispelling (as it were a fever)(18) the joy of his enemies, who (exempt from every sin) by his own right arm, subdued capricious glory.

24. Unconquered in war-armed with a sword-with his face dilated by the frown above the petals of his lotus-like eyes inflamed with anger-whom, having seen, the glories of his enemies gradually receded from all quarters, with faces quailing as if under the palm of his hand, and with bodies now trembling with fear.

25. The sea-girt world like a citadel was preserved by that mailed hero, by means of his unerring and terrific arm.

26. Skilled to counteract his enemies, he soon reproached the sea; for he was unaddicted to partiality (apaxa dharma), and was averse to association with the evil minded (doshá kara), and inimical to vile and cruel detractors (bhujanga).(19)

27. Kings (who by their hands were able to push aside strong horses) cheerfully submitting to his dominion, would eat at the threshold of that hero--stained as it was by the mud caused by the exudations from the heads of elephants.

28. His most beloved wife was KANKUTA, like a necklace, being bright as the lustre of the moon; inestimable, and heart penetrating.

29. She, who longed for his society, was the ornament of women— the sole grace of the world. For her colour shone like gold--her eyes were like the dark lotus, which expands before the moon-her hand was ruby-red-grace was in her steps--her lips were of coral--and her mind was pure like the pearl itself, just emancipated from its parent shell.

30. Of him and her (the offspring of the celestial Ganga (20) of pure renown, the remembrance of whom destroys a multitude of sins

17 This verse is in the true vein of Sanscrit pedantry. The words explanatory of the double sense of the words (on which the poet puns) are of course wanting in the original.

18. There is a fabulous gem by contact with which fire loses its combustive virtue. It is here alluded to.

19. The influence of the moon on the tides has been long known to the Indians, and is often alluded to in Sanscrit poetry. According to the para, or semi-lunation, the tides increase or decrease; the sea is thus said to be affected by the paxa. It is likewise not indifferent to the Doshakara, the moon, or night-maker. It abounds also with Bhujunga, serpents. It is probable that the pedantic author of these verses, some of which are in the true poetic vein, considered the puns of this stanza as his chef d'œuvre. 2). It is indicated that KANKUTA was of the Gangetic race.

and abounds in holy shrines) the son was YASO-DHARMA DEVA, the abode of virtue, naturally obedient to his father, of great prowess, and creating a doubt whether he was BHISHMA or UPENDRA.(21)

31. Though shewing like premature grey hairs, still the brilliantly white dust on his head (received in prostration to the feet of Brahmins) obtained increased beauty.

32. SIVI only gave a piece of his flesh (pal) to a single bird (dvija) (22) who begged it; but that king bestowed millions on all who asked.

33. Through awe of that victorious monarch, kings conceived these notions; when prostrating their foreheads on the ground, that he was an animated gem ;-when preceding his equipage, that to march on foot was an office distinguished by dignity;-that to speak to him, was as if on every side there were life and triumph ;-and that to make every sort of obeisance, was a graceful attitude.

34. His brilliant conduct covered with glory, as if overspread by a coat of white plaster, now placed him on a level with these miracles,— the mansion of the king of snakes, ever illuminated by the moonand the expanse of the atmosphere strewed with jasmine flowers. (23)

35. Though in greatness rivalling the luminary borne by seven horses, and capable of seeing beyond the seven seas, no man in this world could scan the ocean of his mind.

36. When his power was annihilated, dominion (Dhrita-rashtra) and prosperity were denied to the enemy-who poured forth those plaintive notes (Gandhàri) grateful as the warbling of a bird (Sakuni); who fainted at hearing the mangling by terrific (bhishma) crows (Drona) of the ears (Karna) and faces (Asya) of men (Nara) -and who was now conscious of that hero's valor and prowess (Dharma prabhava). This was strange.(21)

21. BHISHMA was the son of GANGA; his father was SANTANU: he was general of DURYODHANA, the opponent of his consin YUDHISTHARA. UPENDRA is a name of KRISHNA.

22. A passage in the Mahabharat is alluded to. SIVI was celebrated for his generosity; a bird demanded surrender of his prey which had taken refuge with SIVI. His offer of other food is rejected, and the victim or a piece of SIVI's own flesh insisted on. The just and generous king complies with the latter alternative. Puns again are perpetrated on the words pal and dwija, which signify a weight and a Brahman respectively, besides the senses taken in the translation. The partakers of YASO DHARMA DEVA's liberality were Brahmans.

23. These are impossible events, something like Virgil's leaves inscribed with king's


24. A play on the words runs through this Sloka-DHRITA-RASHTRA was husband of GANDHARI, the sister of SAKUNI. BHISMA, DRONA, KURNA, and NARASYA, are generals of DHRISTA-RASHTRA and his son DURYODHANA. DHARMA-PRABHAVA is a name of YUDHISHTARA, nephew of DHRITA-RASHTRA. See Sri Bhagavat Purana. The ambiguity is lost in the translation. BHISMA and the rest might be taken as the CLOANTHI and GYAANTES of the enemy's army with less outrage to com

mon sense.

37. What boots it that a ditch was dug by the sixty thousand royal sons of SAGAR who devoted their lives; and that it was filled with water by his grandson and two other descendants in the first and second degree? Hearing the narrative of the origin of the sea (Sagar), he idly emulous made a vast undulating lake greater than the sea itself.(25)

38. Resplendent as the autumnal moon, as soon as that palace, which had bruised the horses' hoofs and shattered the chariot wheels, was seen by the charioteer of the sun, he swerved his car from its path, -that palace of which the golden ball, gave the idea of the solar disc kissing the summits of the snowy mountains, and constituted the delight of the household image of VAYKUNTA, the foe of demons.

39. Of that great king the chaste queen was NARMA DEVA, high-born, happy, and beloved on earth.

40. Even when injured she was always unresenting; but when benefited, lavish of her life; forgiving the arrogant, but never addicted to pride herself.

41. The queen bore to that god amongst men a virtuous and pure son, BANGA -just as SACHI bore JAYANTA to the Ruler of the Gods (INDRA).

42. That best of men (Narottama) born in the race of VRISHNI, the cleaver of the skulls of his foe, surnamed pure (PUTA NAMA) imparted gladness to his encomiasts, (Yasodā 'nandatá) and adhered to peaceful pursuits.(26)

43. By that lion-like man, resistless in his anger, safety of life was never allowed to the robber of gold (Hiranya Kasipu).(27)

44. "May it please your Majesty from this place to listen to the "lord of Kosala (Oude)?” "Lord of Kratha let the mandate be "quickly heard." "Oh Ruler of Sinhala (Ceylon) prostrate yourself, "and stand outside." "Speak chief of Kuntala, first putting up your "cloth to your mouth." Such were the words spoken by the door

25. Allusion to the Puranic origin of the Ocean is made. SAGUR had determined reap the fruit of an Aswa-Meddha. The first stage of this is the release of the victim horse with a label. When fairly caught after battle with rivals he is slain, and the sacrificer obtains his vow. INDRA alarmed for his throne had the labelled horse picketted in Patala, in the centre of the earth, before the Muni KAPILA. SAGAR'S sons baffled in their chase dug for the victim. Finding him, they abused the Muni, by whose curse they became ashes. By the successive austerities of ANSUMAN, DILIPA, and BHAGIRATHA, grandson, great grandson, and great great grandson of SAGAR, the celestial Ganges was brought on earth, and filling the excavation, reanimated the ashes of their progenitors who ascended to heaven. The poet indicates that YASODHURMA DEVA dug a great Tank.

26. A play on words pervades this stanza. It may refer to KRISHNA or NAROTTAMA, also called PUTANAMA, who was the delight of YASODA, his adoptive mother. 27. The same Jeu de mots is kept up.

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