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it in the month of January its bed was perfectly dry. From the junction of this stream the river pursues a winding course to the southward, and has an average breadth of 400 yards; at some places however it is much wider, especially at the confluence of the Khato, a large stream descending from the eastern range of mountains, where it is nearly a mile across, and when full, must form a fine sheet of water: here its bed is overrun with jungle, and the stream winds through the centre in two small rivulets, 15 yards broad, and 15 inches deep. The Khato is from three to five hundred yards broad, and is only filled in the rains. Four miles to the N. E. of Layaree the Poorally receives the water of the Hubbe, a river of some size flowing from the eastward, and below the point of junction is confined by a dam or bund, to retain its waters in the dry season for agricultural purposes. From this spot to its mouth it has no bed; as the river fills during the rains the bund is swept away, and the water escapes through a level plain covered with bushes, about five miles broad, which it inundates to a depth of two or three feet. This plain is bounded by the sand hills on the coast, and extends in a winding direction to the mouth of the river, which is situated at the head of the harbour of Soonmemy, and only runs four or five miles into the land. The water also finds another outlet through a line of lakes and swamps on the eastern side of the valley, where the ground is very low, and reaches the sea at a large lagoon on the shores of the bay, a few miles below the harbor. Serundo, the largest of the swamps, is several miles in length and very irregular in shape; its width in some places exceeding a mile, and at others contracting to four or five hundred yards. In the dry season, when it has a depth of four or five feet, the water is salt and charged with vegetable matter from the thick mangrove jungle growing along its banks, but during the inundation it is perfectly fresh, and the swamp then assumes the appearance of an extensive lake. Water fowl of all kinds resort to it in incredible numbers, and alligators are almost equally abundant.
The water of the Poorally holds in solution a large quantity of saline ingredients, and every stone in its bed that is at all exposed to the influence of the sun is covered with a thin incrustation. As far as I could judge from the taste it is natron, and the flavor of the water is scarcely affected by it. In the swampy parts of the river near Beylah alligators are numerous, and they are met with here and there throughout its course.
In the whole province there are not more than ten or twelve towns or villages, and the largest of these, Beylah, does not contain more than 5,000 inhabitants; Soonmemy has not half that number, and
Ootul, a town situated on the eastern side of the valley, which ranks next in importance, scarcely a fourth; Layaree, Oot, Momadary, and the others, are small villages of thirty or forty houses each, part built of mud, and the rest of mats, and none have more than 150 or 200 inhabitants. The people generally are scattered over the face of the country, and have no fixed habitations; their huts are erected whereever there is pasturage for their cattle, and being constructed of stakes and reed mats, are easily removed to other spots when the supply of fodder is exhausted. Beylah, the capital, is built upon a rising ground, on the north bank of a small river flowing from the mountains to the north-east, which joins the Poorally about a mile to the westward of the city. It contains about 800 houses built of mud, and a population of about 5000 souls. The palace of the Jam is situated in the northeast quarter, and this part of it is surrounded by a mud wall of no great strength, which is the only defence of the place.
The productions of Lus, are grain, (chiefly wheat, and jowaree) oil seed, a kind of gram called gogur, and cotton; ghee is made in large quantities, and sent to Kurachee or Soonmemy for exportation, and the flocks furnish a small supply of wool:-cotton cloth, with the coarse woollen dresses worn by the peasantry, and coarse carpets made at Beylah, are the only articles manufactured in the country.
It is difficult to form an estimate of the amount of the population, from the people being so much scattered over the face of the country, but I do not think it exceeds 25,000 souls. It is composed principally of Noomrees, descendants from the ancient Summa and Soonvia Rajpoots, whose chiefs formerly ruled in Sinde, and who are divided into seven tribes-the Jamootry, Arab Gudoor, Shooroo, Boorah, Shukh, Warah, and Mungayah. The Arab Gudoor is said to be a branch from the celebrated Arab tribe the Koreish, and to have settled in Lus in the reign of the third caliph Omar. That the family of Arab Oosmanany, the chief, is from an Arab stock is evident, for in him and all his relatives the Arab form and features are strongly marked, but the resemblance is not visible in the tribe generally, and it is no doubt of Noomree origin. The Jokeeas, and Jukreeas, who are also Noomrees, and inhabit the mountainous country to the eastward, were also formerly subject to the chief of Lus; but when Kurachee was taken by the Scindians they threw off their allegiance, and have ever since acknowledged the authority of the Ameers. Besides Noomrees there are also many Hindoos, and a large number of African slaves: the latter perform all the work. The chiefs and a few of their military followers are robust, and good looking men, but the Noomrees generally possess few of those qualities, either physical or moral, which would entitle them to
be considered a fine race. Amongst the lower orders mixture of the different castes and tribes is observable, and a large number exhibit marks in their features of their African descent. In appearance and bodily strength the men are inferior to the inhabitants of most Asiatic countries, and they are ignorant, indolent, and superstitious. The women possess few personal charms even when young, and are remarkable for their bold and licentious manners. The dress of both sexes is much the same as it is in Sinde, and there is in fact a marked resemblance, both in character and appearance, between the people of the two countries.
Jam Meer Mahomed, the chief of Lus, is about fourteen years of age, and does not at present take any part in the government of the province, which is conducted by Ularacky, the chief of the Jamootry, under the direction of his mother. Jam Deenah, his cousin, is the only male relative he has; he is about forty years of age, and much liked by the people for the kindness and generosity of his disposition. The Jam's sister was married some years ago to Meer Sobdar, one of the Sinde Ameers, and it is settled that when he is of age he is to espouse one of that prince's sisters in return. He has also a half sister in the harem of Meerab Khan, the Kelat prince, and another married to the chief of the Jokeeas. The mother of these two girls resides at Soonmemy and is in such a destitute condition that she has lately been obliged to sell her clothes and jewels to obtain the necessaries of life.
The Jam is not independent, but like all the Brahooey chiefs, holds his dominions under the feudatory tenure of furnishing a certain number of troops when required for the service of his lord paramount, the sovereign of Kelat. The Jam's father was formerly obliged to send him a portion of the duties collected in his territories as a yearly tribute, but after his marriage with one of the prince's daughters, this was no longer demanded. At present the Jam is kept in complete subjection, for his small state is every where exposed to the attacks of the Brahooey tribes, who if commanded by the Kelat chief would quickly overrun it; and he would not in consequence dare to disobey any order from that prince, or act in any business of importance without his sanction. The number of troops he is expected to bring into the field in time of war was fixed at 4500; but at present the whole military force of the province does not exceed 2700 men, which are furnished by the different tribes in the following proportion:
Soonmemy is the principal sea-port of Lus, and looking place possesses considerable trade. The t Meany by the natives is mean and dirty, and d than 500 houses; they are built of sticks and mu turret rising above the roof open to the sea breeze, would scarcely be habitable in the summer mont excessive heat; formerly the town was surroun but as no pains were taken to keep it in repair decay, and now scarcely a vestige of it remains. lation of about 2,000 souls, most of whom are emp are extremely poor, and there are besides a few H whole trade of the place in their hands. At Me tremely bad. I examined all the wells in the caused others to be dug in the most promising brackish that it was not drinkable, and I wa
Kurachee for a supply for the vessels. The harbour, which has been formed by the Poorally river, is a large irregular inlet spreading out like that at Kurachee in extensive swamps, and choked with shoals ; the channel leading into it is extremely narrow, and has a depth of sixteen or seventeen feet at high water in the shallowest part, but it shifts its position every year, and vessels of any size could not navigate it without great difficulty, until it had been buoyed off inside. There is six or seven and even ten fathoms in some places, but towards the town the channels become shallow, and the trading boats cannot approach it nearer than a mile; at the spot where they anchor they are always aground at low water. During the south-west monsoon the harbour cannot be entered, for the bar at the entrance is exposed to the whole force of the swell, and the breakers on it are heavy. There is another small sea-port belonging to Lus, situated on the western side of the Hinglaj mountains, at Ras Ambah, it is called Ournarah, and is the place to which the productions of the western division of the province are sent for exportation.
The total value of the trade of Lus does not exceed five lacs of rupees; the imports are-from Bombay, cloths, silks, iron, tin, steel, copper, pepper, sugar, and spices; the Persian Gulf, dates and slaves; and from Sinde, a small quantity of coarse cotton cloth. The greater part of the articles brought from Bombay are sent to Kelat, for although highly prized in Lus the people are too poor to purchase them, and they receive in return wool, of which 800 candys arrived in the course of last year, and different kinds of dried fruits. The exports, are-grain (principally wheat and jowaree) ghee, wool, oil seed, and a quantity of gum; a duty of three per cent. is levied on all imports and exports, which may be paid either at Soonmemy or Beylah, and a bazar toll of one per cent. at Layaree and Ootul, two towns on the road.
Most of the articles imported from Bombay are sent to Kelat, and from that city distributed throughout Beloochistan; the quantity is very small for the supply of such an extensive kingdom, and is not likely to become greater until the Kelat prince takes measures to prevent the caravans from being plundered in their route from Beylah to his capital. The intermediate districts are inhabited by various Brahooey tribes, such as the Mingulls, Bezinyas, &c. and to each of the chiefs, the merchant has to pay from one to four rupees for the camel load, as may be determined at the time; their followers also frequently pillage the caravans. Meerab Khan, the Kelat prince, has no doubt the power to repress these outrages, and he would certainly interfere to prevent them, if the advantages that would accrue to