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himself from the increase of the trade, were pointed out in a favorable manner. All the merchants of Lus are of opinion, that the commerce would be considerably enlarged if security were afforded to the trader, and of this there can be little doubt, for cloth and other articles of European manufacture are in great request throughout Beloochistan, and the supply is not at present adequate to the demand.

Formerly the commerce of Lus was much more valuable than it is at present, and a large portion was sent by the Kelat route northern provinces of Hindoostan ; within the last forty years it ha from various causes gradually declined. In 1808 Soonmemy wa taken, and plundered by the Joasmy pirates, and for some years th merchants were afraid to send goods there; the port was just beginnir to recover from this blow, when the Ameers of Sinde issued stri orders to the merchants of Kurachee to discontinue their practice importing goods to any of the ports of Lus under the severest penalti and this measure, which at once took away half the trade of place, completed what the pirates had begun. In the meantime trade with the northern provinces had ceased entirely, for they become so unsettled that the Patan merchants, who are the great carr in that part of the world, ceased to come to Kelat for goods, an they afterwards found the route from Upper Sinde much the sa they resorted to it in preference, and have since obtained the s supply of goods they require from the merchants of that king Before the trade of Lus had suffered from the causes above menti its value is said to have been five times greater than it is at pre and it was also much more lucrative to the merchant, for at period goods of European manufacture sold for double the price t now obtained for them.

T. G. CARLOSS, 1st February, 1838.

Lieutenant, Indian

Art. III.—On three new species of Musk (Moschus) inhabit

Hemalayan districts. To the Editor of the Journal, Asiatic Society. Sir,-Several years ago I called the attention of Dr. Abel remarkable, and apparently permanent distinctions of colour ch ising the Musks, or Musk Deer of the Cis and Trans-Hemalay ons. These I subsequently inserted in my amended cata) Mammalia, under the specific names of Leucogaster, Chrysoga Saturatus, but without giving specific characters, owing to v


confined to the estuary of the Hoogly, but probably extend to all the estuaries of the Ganges, as Buchanan says they do; and we know tha Dr. Russell also describes two large species in his work, long since published, on the fishes of the Madras Coast.

The very valuable production, Isinglass, having been recently foun to be yielded by one of the fishes of the Hoogly by a writer in Par bury's Oriental Herald, it became an interesting object to determine th systematic name of the fish affording an article so valuable, and to lear as much as possible regarding its habits. Having procured a specime of this fish from the bazar, I was surprised to find it to be a Polyn mus, or Paradise fish, although the writer alluded to described it resembling a Shark. My surprise was not that a person unacquainte with fishes should compare it to a Shark, or to any thing else, but th a nearly allied species to the Mango-fish should contain a natato vessel of such size and value, while that organ is quite absent in t Mango-fish itself, though a general character of nearly all others.

I had come to the determination never to describe single or detach species of fish, but as the object of this paper is to elucidate the co mercial side of a question already before the public, I shall not prete to offer any remarks on the scientific part of the subject, which is deed beyond my province, as my observations have hitherto been e fined to the fresh water species of India.

The species affording the Isinglass is the Polynemus sele, Buc Sele, or Sulea, of the Bengalese, described, but not figured, in the G getic Fishes ; but if Buchanan's drawings had not been placed unde bushel since 1815, probably this useful discovery would have b sooner made, and better understood by the writer in Parbury's Orier Herald, to whom we are indebted for it.

The annexed figure from Buchanan's unpublished collection at Botanic Garden, conveys an excellent representation, about half size a specimen from which I obtained 66 grains of Isinglass : but as writer in Parbury's Oriental Herald states that from half a poun three quarters of a pound is obtained from each fish, we may sup either that P.sele attains a much greater size than 24 pounds, limit given to it by Buchanan, or, that the Isinglass is also afforded far larger species, namely Polynemus teria, Buch. or Teria bhangana Bengalese, Maga jellee of Russell, which Buchanan was informed s times equals three hundred and twenty pounds avoirdupois, and wh frequently have seen of an uniform size, that must have been from to an hundred pounds at least, loading whole cavalcades of hackeri once on their way to the Calcutta bazar, as I have already stated, d the cold season, when they would consequently seem to be very con


directed to the subject of curing fishes in India by Dr. Cantor, (vide Pro-
in order to give a direct inducement to the undertaking.* I therefore
regard the discovery of the Ichthyocolla of commerce in one of the larger
Polynemi of India as a circumstance eminently calculated to direct at-
tention to a promising and almost unlooked for source of enterprise. We
first of all require to know whether more Polynemi than one afford it,
and to be fully acquainted with the habits and the methods already em-

ployed for taking such as do. Polynemus sele, Buch. is the species I exa-
imined and found to contain it; but this species is supposed to be a variety

only of Polynemus lineatus, which is very common on all the shores to
the eastward ; it therefore becomes a question of some importance to
determine whether P. lineatus yields the same valuable article, and if it

Should Dr. Cantor still be in London, I would recommend those who
may be interested in the important question of Isinglass to consult him, as
no one is so competent to afford information regarding the fish by which that article
is yielded in India. He will, I am confident, on a re-examination of his notes
regarding the Polynemi, readily distinguish those with large sounds, and be able
they are procurable, than could be expected from any one who had not devoted his
to afford more valuable information regarding their habits, and the quantities in which
not sure that the species of Polynemus Dr. Cantor particularly refers to in his paper
thoughts to the subject, during a survey of the place in which these fishes occur. I am
as the Salliah, or Saccolih, is not the very fish that affords Isinglass; if so, it appears to
be considered by Dr. Cantor as a new species, and his notes will probably afford all that
it is essential to know regarding its habits. Thus, as Sir J. E. Smith somewhere obser-
ved, "the naturalist who describes a new species, however trifling it may seem, knows not
what benefit that species may yet confer on mankind.”
sary Meeting of the Bombay Geographical Society, cod sounds and shark's fins are

In an interesting account of Kurachee by Lieut. Carloss, read at the last anniverconsiderable extent along the coast of Sinde. As however the Cod, Morrhua

among the exports from that place, and fishing is said to be carried on to a sounds alluded to by Lieut. Carloss are taken are no doubt Polynemi, the larger vulgaris, Cuv., is quite unknown in the Indian Seas, the species from which the species of which are sometimes called by the English, Rock-Cod. It will be curious to learn if the Chinese have monopolised this trade on the coast of Sinde as well as On Isinglass in Polynemus sele, Buch.

205 Although the sound, or natatory vessel is the part of the fish that would afford the principal inducement to form fisheries, one of the obligations that speculators should be obliged to enter into with the Government is, to cure all parts of such fishes as might be taken for their sound. Considering the scarcity of fish in many parts of India,

and the great, I may say unlimited demand for it in some parts of the 2

country even when badly preserved, as well as the excellence of the flesh
of all the Polynemi, the curing of these fishes might prove no less pro-
fitable to the parties themselves, than it would unquestionably be to the
country. I was happy to find the attention of the Royal Asiatic Society
ceedings, 21st April, 1838)but a something was then wanting to be known


be really common to the eastward; if so, it seems strange that the Chine should send for it to the Hoogly. Next, do the Pol. Emoi and P plebeius, supposed by Buchanan to correspond with his Sele, contain tl same valuable substance ? and do either of Russell's species, namely, t] Maga booshee and Maga jellee, (Indian Fishes, 183, 184,) yield it? The are questions easily determined along our coasts by merely opening su fish as correspond with the one here figured, and ascertaining wheth they contain an air vessel or not, and whether that vessel if present 1 large or small. Mergui, Batavia, Singapore, Tranquebar, Madras, ar Bombay are points at which observations might be made. This questic may be so easily ascertained, that it is hardly worth forming a conjectu about it; but if any of the species common to the coasts of the Easter seas possessed so valuable a property, the chances are that it woul have been long since discovered. It is therefore probable that th large gelatine sound will be found to be peculiar to Pol. sele, and pe haps Pol. teria,* Buch. both of which seem to resort chiefly to th Gangetic estuaries at certain seasons, particularly during the North east monsoon, when it is easy to imagine that the shelter afforded i those estuaries at that season, might account for many peculiaritie which their ichthyology appears to present, compared with that of ope coasts. It is during the cold season that the two gigantic fishes abov mentioned appear to be cauglit in most abundance, a circumstance th more favourable to any improved operations that might be resorte to with a view to convert them to useful purposes. Whether both con tain the same valuable substance, I am unable to say, having as ye only examined P. sele.

Gen.- POLYNEMUS. Two fins on the back, with long filaments attached to the sides in fron of the pectoral fins. Opercula covered with scales ; preoperculun serrated behind. Example. The common Mango-fish of Bengal.

P. Sele, Buch. Plate-

Sele, or Sulea of the Bengalese. Five filaments, the first reaching from the front of the pectorals to midway between those fins and the anal, the other filaments progressively shorter ; no streaks on the sides, lateral line deflected on the lower lobe of the caudal fin. The fin rays are as follows ;—first dorsal seven, second dorsal fourteen, pectorals thirteen in each, ventrals each sis, anal twelve or thirteen, caudal twenty (?) The teeth are very fine, cou. tinuous below round the edes of the jaws, but interrupted at the

* P. quadrifilis, Cuy. P.tetradoctylus, &c. and probably refer to the same.

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