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anterior part of the upper jaw, behind which a small detached group palatine teeth are placed on the vomer.
The liver consists of an elongated left lobe and a short right one, under which the gall bladder is situated. The stomach is a short muscular cul-de-sac, both orifices of which being placed at the anterior extremity, from which numerous small ceca are given off, the intestine extends straight to the vent; in all these respects it corresponds nearly with P. paradiseus. The air vessel, which is quite absent in the latter, and on which the peculiar value of this species seems to depend, is a large spindle-shaped organ about half the length of the fish, thick in the middle and tapering toward the extremities, where it ends in front by two, and behind by a single tendenous cord; similar small tendenous attachments, about twenty-two in number, connect it on either side to the upper and lateral parts of the abdominal cavity. organ, which is called the sound, is to be removed, opened, and stript of a thin vascular membrane which covers it both within and without, washed perhaps with lime water and exposed to the sun, when it will soon become dry and hard; it may require some further preparation to deprive it of its fishy smell, after which it may be drawn into shreds for the purpose of rendering it the more easily soluble. The fish which I examined weighed about two pounds and yielded about sixty-five grains of Isinglass, not quite pure, but containing about 10 per cent. of albumenous matter, owing perhaps to the individual from which it was taken being young and out of season, and not above a tenth part of the ordinary size of the species. But the solution after having been strained appeared to be equal to that of the best Isinglass, which costs in Calcutta from twelve to sixteen rupees a pound. As the subject thus seemed to be of consequence, I gave a portion of the substance in question to Dr. O'Shaughnessy for its chemical examination.
a. Breadth of the back,
b. Scale magnified,
c. Scale from lateral line magnified,
Calcutta, 3rd May, 1839.
ART. V. Journal of the Mission which visited Bootan, in 1837-38, under Captain R. BOILEAU PEMBERTON. By W. GRIFFITH, ESQ. Madras Medical Establishment.*
The Mission left Gowahatti on the 21st December, and proceeded a few miles down the Barrumpootur to Ameengoung, where it halted.
On the following day it proceeded to Hayoo, a distance of thirteen miles. The road, for the most part, passed through extensive grassy plains, diversified here and there with low rather barren hills, and varied in many places by cultivation, especially of sursoo. was forded, and several villages passed.
Hayoo is a picturesque place, and one of considerable local note; it boasts of a large establishment of priests, with their usual companions, dancing girls, whose qualifications are celebrated throughout all Lower Assam. These rather paradoxical ministers are attached to a temple, which is by the Booteas and Kampas considered very sacred, and to which both these tribes, but especially the latter, resort annually in large numbers. This pilgrimage, however, is more connected with trading than religion, for a fair is held at the same time. Coarse woollen cloths and rock salt form the bulk of the loads which each pilgrim carries, no doubt as much for the sake of profit as of penance. The village is a large one, and situated close to some low hills; it has the usual Bengal appearance the houses being surrounded by trees, such as betel palms, peepul, banyan, and caoutchouc. To Nolbharee we found the distance to be nearly seventeen miles. The country throughout the first part of the march was uncultivated, and entirely occupied by the usual coarse grasses; the remainder was one sheet of paddy cultivation, interrupted only by topes of bamboos, in which the villages are entirely concealed; we found these very abundant, but small: betel palms continued very frequent, and each garden or enclosure was surrounded by a small species of screw pine, well adapted for making fences.
Four or five streams were crossed, of which two were not fordable: jheels were very abundant, and well stocked with water fowl and waders. At this place there is a small bungalow for the accommodation of the civil officer during his annual visit; it is situated close to a rather broad but shallow river. There is likewise a bund road.
We proceeded from this place to Dum-Dumma, which is on the Bootan boundary, and is distant ten miles from Nolbharee. We continued through a very open country, but generally less cultivated than
* Presented by the Government.
that about Nolbharee; villages continued numerous as far as DumDumma. This is a small straggling place on the banks of a small stream, the Noa Nuddee; we were detained in it for several days, and had the Booteas alone been consulted, we should never have left it to enter Bootan in this direction. The place I found to be very uninteresting.
December 31st. We left for Hazareegoung, an Assamese village within the Bootan boundary.
We passed through a much less cultivated country, the face of which was overrun with coarse grassy vegetation. No attempts appeared to be made to keep the paths clean, and the farther we penetrated within the boundary, the more marked were the effects of bad government. We crossed a small and rapid stream, with a pebbly bed, the first indication of approaching the Hills we had as yet met with. The village is of small extent, and provided with a Nam-ghur in which we were accommodated: it is situated on comparatively high ground, the plain rising near it, and continuing to do so very gradually until the base of the Hills is reached. There is scarcely any cultivation about the place.
We left on January 2d for Ghoorgoung, a small village eight miles from Hazareegoung; similar high plains and grassy tracts, almost unvaried by any cultivation, were crossed; a short distance from the village we crossed the Mutanga, a river of some size and great violence during the rains, but in January reduced to a dry bouldery bed. There is no cultivation about Ghoorgoung, which is close to the Hills, between which and the village there is a gentle slope covered with fine sward. We entered the Hills on the 3d, and marched to Dewangari, a distance of eight miles. On starting we proceeded to the Durunga Nuddee, which makes its exit from the Hills about one mile to the West of Ghoorgoung, and then entered the Hills by ascending its bed, and we continued doing so for some time, until in fact we came to the foot of the steep ascent that led us to Dewangari. The road was a good deal obstructed by boulders, but the torrent contains at this season very little water.
The mountains forming the sides of the ravine are very steep, in many cases precipitous, but not of any great height. They are generally well wooded, but never to such a degree as occurs on most other portions of the mountainous barriers of Assam. At the height of about 1000 feet we passed a choky, occupied by a few Booteas, and this was the only sign of habitation that occurred.
lodged in a temporary hut of large size, some 200 feet below the ridge on which Dewangari is situated; our access to that