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this was the highest elevation at which we saw these trees living.
There is a species of Atripleig, the Mooreesa of the Assamese, likewise
eultivated about Roongdoong: the seeds are eaten as well as the
leaves, which form a sort of turkaree. The ingenuity of the Booteas
was well shewn here by the novel expedient of placing stones under
the ponies' feet to enable them to get at the contents of the mangers!
The ponies appeared tolerably well fed, at least I saw them enjoy one
good meal, consisting of wild tares and the heads of Indian corn,
which had been previously soaked; besides these luxuries, they were
supplied with a slab of rock as a rolling stone or scratch-back. Our
host, the Dhoompa, who is appointed by the Deb himself, was an im-
pudent drunken fellow, and presumed amazingly on his low rank.
He was one of the most disagreeable and saucy persons we met with
in Bootan.

Feb. 1st. Our march commenced by descending, gradually at
first and then very rapidly, to the Dumree Nuddee; crossing this,
which is of small size, at the junction of another torrent, we wound
along the face of the mountain forming the right wall of the ravine,
ascending very gradually at the same time. We continued thus
until we came on the ravine of the Monass, which we followed
upwards, the path running about 1000 feet above its bed for about
two miles, when we reached Benka. We passed two or three small
villages on the right side of the Dumree, and a few others were
seen on its left. The country throughout was of a most barren ap-
pearance, the vegetation consisting of coarse grasses, stunted shrubs,
and an occasional long leaved pine. Benka, or as it is better known
Tassgong, is a small place situated on a precipitous spur, 1200 feet
below which, on one side, the Monass roars along, and on the other
a much smaller torrent. From either side of the village one might
leap into eternity it is elevated 3100 feet above the sea.

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We were lodged in a summer house of the Soobah, about half
a mile up the torrent, and in which, as it was an open house,
and as they kept the best room locked up on the score of its being
sacred, we were much incommoded by the furious gusts of wind
sweeping as usual up the ravine.

The place itself is the Gibraltar of Bootan, consisting of a large
square residence for the Soobah, decorated in the usual manner,
of a few poor houses much crowded together, and the defences.
These consist of round towers of some height, and a wall which con-
nects the village with the tower; and on the opposite side of the
torrent there are other defences of towers and outhouses. All seemed
to be in a somewhat ruinous state.

F f


A few days after our arrival we had an interview with the Soobah, on the open spot in front of our residence. On this he had caused to be pitched a small silken pavilion, about half the size of a sipahis' paul. He came in all possible state, with about thirty armed followers, preceded by his state band, which consisted of a shrill clarionet and a guitar, (guiltless of sound) a gong and a bell, ponies, a Tartar dog, gentlemen of the household, priests, all assisted in forming a long string which advanced in single file.

He was polite and obliging, and maintained his rank better than any other of the Soobahs we saw. After the interview, at the end of which presents of decayed plantains, papers of salt, scarfs, and strips of coarse blanket were returned, we were treated with music and dancing women, who only differed from their compeers of India in being elderly, ugly, very dirty, and poorly dressed. The spectators were then seated on the ground and regaled with rice and chong.

On his departure the noise far exceeded that attending on his advent. Shrieks and outcries rent the air, the musketoons made fearful report, and, in fact, every one of the followers, of sufficiently low rank, made as much noise as he could. The most curious parts of the ceremony were,-the manner in which they shuffled the Soobah off and on his pony; the mode in which the ponies' tails were tied up; and the petition of the head of the priests for at least one rupee.

It was here that we first heard of the deposition of the old Deb, and the consequent disturbances.

Feb. 5th. Punctually on the day appointed by the Soobah did we leave this place, and descended by a precipitous path to the Monass, which we crossed by a suspension bridge, the best and largest, I suspect, in Bootan. The bed of this river, which is of large size (the banks which are mostly precipitous being sixty or seventy yards asunder) and of great violence is 1300 feet below Benka. We then commenced ascending very gradually, following up the north side of the ravine, until we reached Nulka: the march was a very short one. The country was perhaps still more barren than any we had hitherto seen, scarcely any vegetation but coarse grasses occurring. Near Nulka the long leaved pine recommenced. We passed two miserable villages scarcely exceeded by Nulka, in which we took up our abode. No cultivation was to be seen, with the exception of a small field of rice below Nulka.

Feb. 6th. We descended to the Monass, above which Nulka is situated 6 or 700 feet, and continued along its right bank for a considerable time, passing here and there some very romantic spots, and one or two very precipitous places. On reaching a large torrent, the Koollong,

we left the Monass, and ascended the former for a short distance, when we crossed it by a wooden bridge. The remainder of the march consisted of an uninterrupted ascent up a most barren mountain, until we reached Kumna, a small and half-ruined village, 4300 feet above the sea.

Little of interest occurred: we passed a small village consisting of two or three houses and a religious building, and two decent patches of rice cultivation. The vegetation throughout was almost tropical, with the exception of the long leaved fir, which descends frequently as low as 1800 or 2000 feet. I observed two wretched bits of cotton cultivation along the Monass, and some of an edible Labiata, one of the numerous makeshifts ordinarily met with among Hill people.

Feb. 7th. Left for Phullung. We ascended at first a few hundred feet, and then continued winding along at a great height above the Koollong torrent, whose course we followed, ascending gradually at the same time, until we reached our halting place. As high as 5000 feet the Kumna mountain retained its very barren appearance; at that elevation stunted oaks and rhododendrons commenced, and at 5300 feet the country was well covered with these trees, and the vegetation became entirely northern.

Throughout the march many detached houses were visible on the opposite bank of the Koollong, and there appeared to be about them a good deal of terrace cultivation. On the left side of the torrent two villages were seen, both as usual in a ruinous state.

8th, and 9th. We were detained partly by snow, partly by the non-arrival of our baggage. On the 9th I ascended to a wood of Pinus excelsa, the first one I had noticed, and which occurred about 1000 feet above Phullung. The whole country at similar elevations was covered with snow, particularly the downs which we passed after leaving Bulphei. Tassgong was distinctly visible. The woods were otherwise composed of oaks and rhododendrons. At Phullung they were endeavouring to keep alive the wild indigo of Assam ; a species of Ruellia, but its appearance shewed that it was unsuited to the climate. Feb. 10th. To Tassangsee. We continued through a similar country, and at a like elevation, with the exception of a trifling descent to a small nullah, and an inconsiderable one to the Koollong, on the right bank of which, and about 500 feet above its bed, Tassangsee is situated. We crossed this torrent, which even here is of considerable size and not fordable, by means of an ordinary wooden bridge, and then ascended to the village. This is constituted almost entirely by the Soobah's house, which is a large quadrangular building; on the same side, but several hundred feet above the house,


there is a large tower; also a small one on the same level, and some religious edifices. We were lodged over the stable.

The country about Tassangsee is picturesque, with large woods of Pinus excelsa, which here has much the habit of a larch, a few villages are visible on the same side of the Koollong, and a little cultivation. The Soobah was absent at Tongsa, to which place he had been summoned owing to the disturbances, so that we were relieved from undergoing the usual importunities and disagrèmens between his followers and ours. The place is said to be famous for its copper manufactures, such for instance as copper cauldrons of large dimensions; but I saw nothing indicating the existence of manufacturers, unless it were a small village below the castle, and on the same side of the Koollong, which looked for all the world like the habitation of charcoal burners. A little further up this stream a few small flour mills occur.

Snow was visible on the heights around, and especially on a lofty ridge to the north. We found Tassangsee to be very cold owing to the violent south or south-east winds; the thermometer however did not fall below 34°. Its elevation is 5270 feet, the vegetation entirely northern, consisting of primroses, violets, willows, oaks, rhododendrons, and pines; very fine specimens of weeping cypress occur near this place.

Feb. 14th. Resumed our journey, interrupted as usual by the nonarrival of our baggage, and scarcity of coolies-and proceeded to Sanah. We descended at first to the torrent, which bounds one side of the spur on which the castle is built, and which here falls into the Koollong; the march subsequently became a gradual and continued ascent, chiefly along its bed. We crossed two small torrents by means of rude flat wooden bridges, and passed two or three deserted villages. Snow became plentiful as we approached Sanah. This we found to be a ruined village, only containing one habitable house. It is situated on an open sward, surrounded with rich woods of oaks and rhododendrons, yews, bamboos, &c. Its elevation is very nearly 8000 feet.

Feb. 15th. We started at the break of day, as we had been told that the march was a long and difficult one. We proceeded at first over undulating ground, either with swardy spots, or through romantic lanes; we then ascended an open grassy knoll, after passing which we came on rather deep snow. The ascent continued steep and uninterrupted until we reached the summit of a ridge 11,000 feet high. Although we had been told that each ascent was the last, we found that another ridge was still before us, still steeper than the

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preceding one, and it was late in the day before we reached its summit,
which was found to be nearly 12,500 feet. Above 9500 feet, the height
of the summit of the grassy knoll before alluded to, the snow was deep;
above 10,000 feet all the trees were covered with hoar-frost, and icicles
were by no means uncommon. The appearance of the black pines,
which we always met with at great elevations, was rendered very
striking by the hoar-frost. Every thing looked desolate, scarce a
flower was to be seen, and the occasional fall of hail and sleet added
to the universal gloom.

The descent from the ridge was for the first 1500 feet, or thereabout,
most steep, chiefly down zigzag paths, that had been built up the faces
of precipices; and the ground was so slippery, the surface snow being
frozen into ice, that falls were very frequent, but happily not attended
with injury. It then became less steep, the path running along swardy
ridges, or through woods.
In the evening I came on the coolies, who
had halted at a place evidently often used for that purpose, and who
positively refused to proceed a single step further. But as Captain
Pemberton and Lieut. Blake had proceeded on, I determined on follow-
ing them, hoping that my departure would stimulate the coolies to
further exertions. After passing over about a mile of open swardy
ground I found myself benighted on the borders of a wood, into which
I plunged in the hopes of meeting my companions; after proceeding for
about half an hour slipping, sliding, and falling in all imaginable
directions, and obtaining no answers to my repeated halloos; after
having been plainly informed that I was a blockhead by a hurkarah,
who as long as it was light professed to follow me to the death-
Master go on, and I will follow thee to the last gasp with love and
loyalty"-I thought it best to attempt returning, and after con-
siderable difficulty succeeded in reaching the coolies at 8 P. M.
when I spread my bedding under a tree, too glad to find one source of

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I resumed the march early next morning, and overtook my com-
panions about a mile beyond the furthest point I had reached; and as
I expected, found that they had passed the night in great discomfort.
We soon found how impossible it would have been for the coolies
to have proceeded at night, as the ground was so excessively slippery
from the half melted snow, and from its clayey nature, that it was as
much as they could do to keep their legs in open day-light.

We continued descending uninterruptedly, and almost entirely
distance of the march was fifteen miles-the greatest amount of
through the same wood, until we reached Singe at 94 A. M.
ascent was about 4500 feet, of descent 6100 feet. We remained at

The total

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