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with on this march. Near the summit, on the descent, a genuine larch was observed, and lower down two species of poplar were very common. The scenery was generally very beautiful. We passed a delightfully situated Gylong village not much below the summit, and near Woollookha saw Symtoka, a rather large square building belonging to the Deb Rajah, situated two or three hundred feet above our road.
Woollookha is a good sized village, and the houses are very good : it is close to the river Teemboo, which drains Tassisudon valley, a few miles distant to the north. There are several villages around it, and a good deal of cultivation of alternating crops of barley, wheat, and rice. The valley, if indeed it can be called so, for it is very narrow, is picturesque enough, although the surrounding hills are not well wooded. The banks of the river, which here flows gently enough, are well ornamented with weeping willows.
Ilth. We continued our route following the river, the path generally laying down its bed, or close to it, occasionally ascending two or three hundred feet above it. Halted at Lomnoo, an easy march. The features of the country remained the same until we neared our halting place, when woods of Pinus excelsa became very common; roses occurred in profusion, and the vegetation generally consisted of shrubs; villages were tolerably frequent, and the cuckoo* was again heard.
12th. To Chupcha. Continued for some time through a precisely similar country, still following the river, but generally at some height above its bed. After passing Panga, a small village at which our conductors wished us to halt, although it was only six miles from Somnoo, we descended gradually to the river Teemboo, and continued along it for some time, during which we passed the remains of a suspension bridge. Leaving the rivers soon afterwards, we encountered such a long ascent that we did not reach Chupcha till rather late in the evening, most of the coolies remaining behind. Having surmounted the ridge immediately above Chupcha, and which is about 8600 feet in altitude, we descended very rapidly to the village, which is about 600 feet lower down the face of the mountain. The road was for the most part tolerably good ; in one place it was built up along the face of a cliff overhanging the Teemboo. The scenery was throughout pretty, but especially before coming on the ascent: some of the views along the river were very picturesque.
* The first time I heard this bird was about Punukka. Although in plumage differs a good deal from the bird so well known in Europe, yet its voice is precisely similar.
Teemboo; at which point there is a small pagoda, visible from Chupcha. We then turned south wards, and continued for a long time at nearly the same level, passing a small village, Punugga, three or four hundred feet below us, and in which Capt. Turner had halted on his ascent. The descent to Chuka was long and gradual, becoming tolerably steep as we approached it. We reached the Teemboo by a miserable road, about half a mile from Chuka castle, which occupies a small eminence in what has once been the bed of the river.
The march was seventeen miles. The road in many places was very bad, and scarcely passable for loaded ponies. The scenery was frequently delightful, and vegetation was in the height of spring luxuriance. The hills bounding the ravine of Teemboo continued very high until we reached Chuka; they were well diversified, particularly at some height above us, with sward and glade, and richly ornamented with fine oaks, rhododendrons, cedar-like pines, and Pinus excelsa. Water was most abundant throughout the march, and in such places the vegetation was indescribably rich and luxuriant.
No village besides that of Punugga was passed or seen, nor did I observe any cultivation. I was much impeded by droves of cattle passing into the interior, for the road was frequently so narrow, and the mountains on which it was formed so steep, that I was obliged to wait quietly until all had passed. These cattle were of a different breed from those hitherto seen in Bootan, approaching in appearance the common cattle of the plains, than which however they were much finer and larger.
We were sufficiently well accommodated in the castle of Chuka, which is as bare of ornament as its neighbour of Chupcha; it is a place of some strength against forces unprovided with artillery, and commands the pass into the interior very completely. There is a miserable village near it, and several trees of the Ficus elastica.
16th. To Murichom. We descended to the Teemboo, which runs some fifty feet below the castle, and crossed it by a suspension bridge, of which a figure has been given by Capt. Turner; it is very inferior in size and construction to that of Rassgong, although, unlike that, it is flat at the bottom. We continued following the Teemboo winding gradually up its right bank, chiefly through rather heavy jungle, and descending subsequently about 600 feet to its bed by a dreadfully dangerous path, built up the face of a huge cliff. We continued along it until we crossed a small torrent at its junction with the large river, and then ascended gradually, following the ravine of this through humid jungle. As we approached Murichom we left the Teemboo a little to our left, and continued through a heavily
wooded country. Before ascending finally to Murichom, we descended twice to cross torrents. We reached Murichom late in the evening, the distance being eighteen miles.
No villages were seen until we came in sight of Murichom. The. mountains were much decreased in height, and clothed with dense black jungle. We passed two water-falls, both on the left bank of the Teemboo, the one most to the south being the Minza peeya of Turner. Neither of them appeared particularly worthy of notice. The vegetation had almost completely changed, it partook largely of the subtropical characters, scarcely single European form being met with. The road was absolutely villainous,* it was very narrow, frequently reduced to a mere ledge, and painful owing to the sharp projections
thelimestone, the prevailing rock of this part of the country Murichom is a small village, rather more than 4000 feet above the sea ; the houses, which are about eight or ten in number, are thatched : it is prettily situated : there is a little cultivation of wheat and maize about it. Although at so considerable an elevation, most of the plants were similar to those of Assam.
17th. Leaving Murichom we descended rapidly to a small torht, from which were ascended untiladregained the eve of Murichom. The path then wound along through heavily wooded country at an elevation of 4000 or 4200 feet: we continued thus throughout the day5.Mnding that the cooles were commeneing to stop behind, and failing in getting any information of my companions, I returned about 1} mile to the small village of Gygoogoo, which is about 300 feet below the path, and not visible from this miserable village of three or four bamboo huts. We had previously passed another and much better village, but as this was only six miles from Muriehom, Capt. Pemberton determined to push on.
18th. I proceeded to Buxa. The path was somewhat improved, and the ascent gradual until an elevation of about 5500 feet was surruounted, from which the descent to Buxa is steep and uninterrupted. This place is seen from a ridge about 1200 feet above it. I reached it between 9 and 10 A. m., and found that my companions had arrived late on the preceding evening, having accomplished a march oftwenty miles in one day. Scarcely any coolies had arrived, however,
The features of the country remained the same, the whole face being covered with dense black looking forest. Even on
* Such is the nature of the path from Chuka to the plains, although it is the great karoughfare between both capitals and Rungpore, that either the trade of Bootan with that place must be much exaggerated, or some other road must exist between these two