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Cabul river, viz. the Cophenes, and which includes Yousoufzeïs proper, Booner, upper and lower Suwat, Penjecooré, and the dependencies of Dhyr.
Remarkable places being points that may serve for comparative geography, as well as rivers and mountains, I shall select the following fo observation :
Ist. The cave Cashmeer Ghar, situated in the territory of the Baboo zeïs, on a mountain which cannot be ascended but by a steep passage hewn in a great measure out of the rock. This place is also callet Pelley, and is sixteen koss from the town of Soukhor. The cave is sai to be of an immeasurable depth, and to have so large an aperture, that it is impossible to discern the direction by casting in a stone. As boti sides of the entrance are of solid masonry, and the front is encumbere with enormous cut stones, one would imagine that it is one of the sub terraneous temples attributed to the Pandoovans, or to the Caffers. A present it is a place of shelter for myriads of wood-pigeons. Quite clos to it are visible the traces of a town or castle, whence idols are some times dug up; a basin also is observable there continually supplied wit! water. I had been assured that an inscription was discoverable, but my men could trace out none whatever. I am not aware if this cave b identical with that of Roostam, to which I have alluded in my des cription of Yousoufzeïs.
2nd. The sandy cave of Dekia, situated at the foot of moun Ghardoom in the district of Dhyr, on which there are the traces of town.
3rd. The Khial cave, near the ruins of Meidan, in the canton o Bajore.
4th. The vast basin that exists on mount Bikary, to the west of Dhyr being a place of pilgrimage for the Hindoos, who give out that thei Pir disappeared on that spot.
5th. The basin situated to the east of Dhyr in the district of Tal, where a fire exists under a cupola maintained from time immemorial, and kept up at present by a Guebrian woman.
6th. Lake Mansoroor in Bajore, situated on a mountain fifteen koss from Bendy Berravol, which is continually supplied with water in consequence of the perpetual snow.
7th. Mount Hilo, situated in Yousoufzeis, by the Mahometans deno minated Hilum Pilum, and by the Hindoos Ramtakt. This place is much frequented by the latter, who perform an annual pilgrimage thither during the month of April, in memory of Rajah Ramtchend, Those Hindoos likewise make the pilgrimage of Chamra, situated near Ootchan, country of the Samoozeïs
Prior to my drawing this article to a close, I deem it an interesti topic, to make an observation on the region of Tchêlas, situated on eastern bank of the Indus, four days' journey (more northward) from Pakhley and Dembor. This region is said to be highly remarkable for the number of ruined towns it contains. Although situated in neighbourhood of the snowy chain, it may well have been the Taktchashilas of the Chinese Religious, a word which may be decomposed into takt, a throne, chah, a king, and shilas a corruption of Tchelas; and thus form a ground for a probable hypothesis, that the Greeks thence derived their Taxila. The inhabitants of Upper Suwat who repair to Tchélas, cross the Indus at Goozer Chekhi, whence is visible on the eastern bank mount Mehoor, situated almost opposite the Cabool-Gheram ruins, which are discoverable on the contrary beach.
Higher up, on the upper branch of the Indus, lie the regions Ghilghit, Ashoor, Goræi, Khélooman, and Balooman, formerly inhabited by the Caffers.
The ferry points of the Indus from Attok to the snowy ridge the following: Attok, Bazar Hound, Monarí, Pehoor, Notchy, Kabbel, Chetabha, Amb, Derbend, Chetterbabi, Mabera, Toohara, Marer, Didel, Kamatche, Behar, Pachetlehi, Guendoo, Mattial, Battera, Jendial, and Manial, Kallehi, Palles-pattan, Pohoo-Goodje, Koonchir and Jalkoot.
ART. IV.- Remarks upon the Rain and Drought of the last Eight
Seasons in India. By the Rev. R. Everest, Landour. In two former papers I endeavoured to trace the variations of the past seasons, as to drought and moisture, by means of the prices of corn, having assumed that the wettest years produced the most abundant harvest, and the driest the reverse.
An examination of the subject shewed that the more extensively the averages of prices were taken, the greater approximation there was to a regular ascending and descending series, or curve, with recurrent periods of from six to ten years ; thus leading to the belief, that, if the average of certain atmospherical phenomena over a surface sufficiently extensive could be taken, the result would exhibit recurrences nearly or altogether regular. I will now shew how far the Register of the different Rain Gauges corroborate or not this opinion. The following are the annual depths of Rain that have fallen in different parts of India during the last eight
Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Dehli,
inches. inches. inches. inches. 1831 58.78 40.30 99.64 1832 50.25
To obtain the average varia20.07 78.20 1833 60.36 36.99 71.00 14:15 tion, let us take the maximum 1834 68.73 40.17 66:59 36.85 1835 85.50
and minimum at each place, and 57.26 62:19 27.70 1836 45.66 47.59 87.99 35.00 divide the whole difference be1837 43.61 49.27 64.99 10:55
tween them into one thousand 1838 53.02 54:33 50-78 20:31 parts; then for the number itself substitute the proportional part of the difference.
1835 1837 Thus at Calcutta we have
1835 1837 These will by the proposed substitution become 1000 000 and the whole will stand thus :
Calcutta. Madras. Bombay. Dehli. Average. 1831 362 293 769
It appears from this average 1832 158 000 441
200 1833 400 246 452 137 309 that the minimum has recurred 1854 600 293 401 1000
573 1835 1000 250 352 652
in five years, which is a period 1836 050 401
somewhat shorter than we should 1837 000 425 376 000 200 1838 225 499
have been led to expect from 216 371 328 an examination of the prices of corn for many years back.
I have before stated, as one of the results of such an examination, that there was a more perfect recurrence at the end of fifty six years than at any other period. Thus comparing together different years with that interval between them, we have the following:
..1815......1822-23...... 1829......1835-36 ... 1759......1767 .........1773
Maxim : or years
of abundance. S Minim: or years
.........1819-20...... 1826......... 1832
.........1763 ...... 1770.........1776
In searching for data to elucidate this part of the subject, I obtained sight of an old manuscript Register in the Surveyor General's Office, from which I was enabled to compare the annual amounts of rain for the last eight seasons with those fifty-six years before.
The Register appears to be imperfect, and, unfortunately, to have been kept by an illiterate person.
The daily entries begin towards the latter end of 1776, but, from a note we learn what had been the annual amount of rain both in that year, and in the year previous. I here subjoin them, and place by the side of each the depths registered 56 years afterwards.