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rather curious, it being the only bird which is so. Moreover the manner in which Mr. Swainson has traced the distribution of this tribe is much to be questioned, it appearing to us a more plausible than real one, many of his statements no doubt being founded on the peculiarity of the country; at least we are not at all aware of any thing being stated by any author which would authorize him to make such state. ments, and he makes no mention of being guided by personal examinations, which he no doubt would have done had he travelled in these regions, seeing that there is no individual more ready to inform us of the extent of his travels.

In regard to his next division, we have the following statement“ The Swallow-like birds, Fissirostres," says he, "are well known by capturing their food on the wing, and by their migratory habits ; only one, the common or European Kingfisher, being stationary. Hence it is, that most of the European species occur in other regions ; the proportion of those which appear confined to Northern Africa is as I to 3.” He does not give any more details in regard to the Fissirostres, leaving his readers to fill up the rest by their own imagination. In his proportional number of species he is not correct. Thus of the fourteen included in the genera Hirundo, Caprimulgus, Merops, Coracias, Alcedo, three are probably confined to Europe ; and of the others, three are proper to Europe and Asia ; to Europe and Africa, three ; to Europe, Asia, and Africa, three ; to Europe, Africa, and North America, one ; and to Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America (?) one ; thus leaving a proportion of 1 to 3 ; but as many of the species, as stated by Mr. Swainson, of this order are migratory, it ren. ders the proportional number very doubtful; at least it is very liable to vary.

In regard to the Scansores, Mr. Swainson states their number to be fifteen, including probably the genera Picus, Apternus, Yunx, Sitta, Certhia, Tichodroma, Upupa, and Cuculus, eight of which he states are confined to Europe ; and as for the distribution of the other seven, as in the Fissirostres, he gives us no information. The number of species however is eighteen, and of these eleven are proper to Europe ; two common to Europe and North America ; three common to Europe and Asia ; one common to Europe, Asia, and Africa ; and one, the Wryneck ( Yunx torquilla) common to Europe, Asia, and North America, which was many years ago pointed out.3o Whether all of the above ten species are proper to Europe, is at present a question, owing

29 Loc. Cit. p. 24.
30 Jam. Edin. New Phil. Jour, and James Wilson's Quart. Rev.

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wards notice the European genera in regard to their distribution, but in the mean time shall confine our attention to the distribution of the species. In regard to the species included in the genera Corvus, Sturnus, &c. Mr. Swainson states their number at twenty. one found in Europe, thirteen of which, or more than one half, habitually reside ; four occur in Northern and Central Africa; one common to Europe, Asia, and Africa; and three found in America. Nor are the above statements even in regard to the species correct.

Thus of the seventeen species, for we cannot make out more, included in the genera Corvus fregilus, Pyrrhocorax garrulus, Nucifraga, Pastor, and Sturnus, six are proper to Europe ; four common to Europe and Asia ; one common to Europe and Africa; three common to Europe, Asia, and Africa; two common to Europe, Asia, and North America ; and one common to Europe, Asia, Australasia (?) and North America. We mark Australasia with an interrogation, for the occurrence of the Corvus corone in that Continent seems doubtful. It is upon the authority of M. Lesson," that we make the statement; who, however, we rather think has confounded with it a nearly allied, but quite distinct species. M. T'emminck” has also in his Catalogue of the Birds of Japan given the Garrulus glandarius, and marks it as the Japanese variety, which it undoubtedly ought only to be considered, for the characters which it presents vary so little from those of the European, and are of such a trivial nature. It is not to be confounded with the Garrulus bispecularis of Vigors," a wellmarked species, also presenting a close affinity to the European, it however is confined to Northern India. In the Garrulus melanocephalus, Bon. we have another species presented, bearing a close affinity to the European, but it not only differs in several characters, but also, like the two Indian species, has a quite different distribu. tion, representing in its locality the common Garrulus glandarius."

31 Ann, de Sci. Nat.
35 Man. d' Ornith. vol. ini. Introd.
36 Proceed. Zool. Soc. Pt. i. p. 7. Gould's Cent.
37 Gen. Mem. of the Acad. of Turin, vol. xxxvii. p. 298.
38 Strickland on the Birds of Asia Minor. Proc. of Zool. Pt. iv. p. 97.

( To be ('ontinued.)

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With these preliminary remarks we shall proceed to characterise the genus or sub-genus Raya, thus

Bill shaped as in Eurylaimus, but equal to the head, or longer, and having the soft frontal zone more produced, and concealing the nares; orbits nude; head large and crested ; gape very wide and smooth ; wings scarcely exceeding the base of the tail, rather feeble; the third and fourth quills longest and equal; the first and second, very slightly gradated ; the primaries plus the tertiaries by about half an inch.

Tarsi longer than central digit, slender, smooth, more or less plumose; toes and nails as in Eurylaimus exactly, but the connexion of the lateral fore toes reaching only to the centre of the second and first phalanges respectively; tail elongated, firm, conspicuously and equally gradated throughout; tongue short, flat, triangular, subfleshy; the tip pointed, cartilaginous, and sub-bifid or sub-jagged. In manners, and food assimilating with Trogon, and with Rucia (nobis ).

Ist. Species. Sericeogula. Silken-throated Ray, nobis. Parrot. green, changing into verditer blue below; head and neck, superiorly, black ; inferiorly, silken yellow ; a narrow band of the latter colour circling round the brows, and bottom of the neck, so as to enclose the black colour ; a blue spot on the crown, and top of the back, and a yellow one behind each ear; tail, and external edge of the primaries blue ; wings and tail, internally, jet black ; orbitar skin yellow ; iris hoary brown; bill lively green ; legs dull greenish or yel. lowish ; crest vague ; tail considerably elongated, and wedged; the gradation equal, and complete ; tarsi plumed at top only ; 11 inches long by 13 wide, and 21 oz in weight; bill 1} inch; tail 52 ; tarsus 11; central toe 12 and nail 1o; hind toe, and nail

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Sexes alike.

2nd. Species. Rubropygia. Red-rumped Raya, nobis. Structure less typical ; colour slatey grey blue ; lower part of the back, tertiaries, and upper tail coverts, red ; wings, tail, tibiæ, and a band from the eyes to the nape, black; primaries with a blue speculum, and blue tips ; the latter margined on the inner side with white ; rectrices, except the two central ones, broadly tipt with white ; head conspicuously crested ; tail shorter, and rather rounded than wedged ; tarsi half plumed; bill soft blue ; iris brown; orbitar skin, orange; feet greenish ; size 7 to 7] inches by 10 to 11, and 11 to 1} oz; bill 14 inch; tail 31; tarsus 15 ; central toe ll; hind 6. Sexes 16

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16 alike.

Nepal, May, 1836.

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