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pounded brick. For water cement the Hursoroo lime with a proper proportion of this red bujree may perhaps be considered as superior to all others attainable in this part of the world.
In conclusion:-the Saul (Shorea robusta) which is found in great quantities in the Deyra Dhoon, and especially on the northern slope of the Sewaliks, is the wood chiefly used on the Canal works for piles, rafters, lock gates, sleepers, windlasses, vanes, &c. &c. The Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo), Toon (Cedrela toona), Sirr (Acacia serissa), are used in doors, door frames, mill machinery, &c. For handles of tools, pickaxes, phaoras, arbors of mill wheels, &c. the Acacia catechu (or Kyr) the wood from which the Terra japonica of commerce is procured, and which grows in great abundance in the forests south of the Sewaliks, and the Acacia arabica (or Keekur) are chiefly in request. For Neemchuks of wells the natives always select the Dhák or Plass (Butea frondosa), and if this is not to be had prefer the wood of the Ficus Indica, F Bengalensis, Bombax Malabaricus (Semmul, or cotton tree); the Horse radish tree (the Hyperanthera morunga of botanists) is also used :-in fact, all the light woods which are valued as floats for rafting timbers are considered better than others for the curbs of wells. The Neem (Melia azadirachta) is a useful wood for small rafters, door frames, &c. from being less liable to the attack of white ants. A variety of Pine (Pinus longifolia) which grows in extensive forests in the Sewalik mountains is held in no esteem by the natives; it is good for making light boxes and common furniture, but in attempting to bring it into use on the works I have failed; very capital tar, however, is procured from it, as well as turpentine.
To Mr. acting Sub-Conductor John Pigott, Overseer of the northern division of the Canal, under whose charge the greater part of the works from which the above data on well-foundations have been formed, I am indebted for much valuable aid; his introduction of the windlass in sinking wells has not only led to a great saving of expense, but added much to the facility of depressing them. His general quickness, moreover, at resources under sudden and unexpected difficulties, which can only be appreciated by those who have seen the effects of the Roas, or mountain torrents in the rainy months, is deserving of the best acknowledgment that I can offer him.
Northern Doab, May 8th, 1839.
* Vide vol. 2 page 249, of the Journal. The Editor here uses the word turpentine for tar. The manufacture of tar, and not turpentine is described; the error was not corrected at the time.-Author's note.