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through firm tale slate in which copper ores, in trickling strings, and also disseminated, were found. The ores were of various kinds, but vitreous copper ore predominated. From these twenty-four feet fiftyeight or sixty seers of rich ores, worth about twenty per cent. of copper were obtained, one-half of which reverted to the miners, according to previous agreement, also a quantity of stuff supposed to contain about forty maunds, which would probably produce twelve to fifteen per cent. of copper. The last six feet of the gallery passed through another old working exactly similar to the former, and which also appears to have gone down obliquely. A perpendicular shaft has been commenced 150 feet from the entrance of the gallery, for the purpose of ventilation; it has been sunk to a depth of thirty feet, and it is expected that by the time this shaft has attained the requisite depth, the gallery will have advanced far enough to join it. The dimensions of shaft are 6×3, the frames are of oak, and the sheeting fir; the first three feet were through alluvial deposit, the next ten through talc slate, and the next five through what appears to have been an horizontal adit filled with deal timber and blue talcose mud, ten pounds of which on being washed, left four ounces of ore, worth probably ten per cent. The remaining twelve feet went through alternate talc and dolomite, or rather having talc on the north side and dolomite on the south. The water oozing from the old working has much impeded the shaft, the quantity discharged by wooden buckets averaging daily about 500 gallons.
The supply of iron required for the works is obtained from the mines of that metal in the Khutsaree valley, about forty miles from Pokri, on the road to Almora. In this valley there are large repositories of compact red iron ore in clay slate, containing beds of limeThe manufacture of iron is carried on here more extensively than at any other place in the province, and the metal produced is considered superior to any other here manufactured. There is no want of iron ore in the district, and it exists in many places nearer to the Pokri mine than Khutsaree. At Dewalgurh, half way between Pokri and Sreenuggur, good iron is worked, and about two miles south of the village of Pokri there is an old deserted mine, the specimens from which are specular iron ore, which might probably be worked with advantage.
The present race of native miners have been. at Pokri for three generations, and have no recollection or tradition of fir timber having been used in the mines; and until it was found on the old workings, they strongly protested against the use of it. The timber found in the Chumittee gallery appears to have been put together with considerable
care, and where firmly bedded in the mud is perfectly sound, but where at all exposed it is much decayed.
The natives of the place are well satisfied with the experiment as far as it has gone, and the applications for employment are more than required; they are also very willing to adopt any improvement on their own rude system, and readily falling into and becoming expert in the use of the tools, &c. The work in the galleries has been performed partly by contract and partly by hired labour; in the former mode the rate paid is about one rupee per foot with half the ores found, and in the latter two annas per day. In the Chumittee gallery the people prefer contracting, in the hope of obtaining profit from the ores found; whereas in the Rajah Kān gallery, as no copper can be expected while passing through the alluvial deposit, they are not at present willing to
The result of the experiment so far may be considered satisfactory, and it is quite certain that copper in considerable abundance has existed in the ground through which we are now passing in the Chumittee ravine, assuming that this ground has been more or less disturbed to a depth of 120 feet-the greatest the native miners say has ever been attained by them, although I question if ever they got so far. We may reasonably hope that by the time the gallery has reached to a distance of about 280 feet we will enter upon ground hitherto untouched, and until this is reached no fair criterion of its capabilities can be formed. I do not expect to make much progress during the rains, owing to the very loose nature of the soil; wherever we have passed through old workings considerable delay has been experienced from the constant falling in of
4th July, 1839.
H. T. PRINSEP, Secy, to the Govt. of India.
ART. III.-Account of a Journey from Sumbulpúr to Mednipúr, through the Forests of Orissa. By LIEUT. M. KITTOE. (Continued from page 383.)
I resumed my march towards Mednipúr at 3 A. M. the following day, and reached Deogurh, the capital of the Baumurra district, at 8 o'clock; on leaving, it was too dark to see any distance, this was of no consequence, as there were high hills close on either side. I had to descend a slight ghát, at the foot of which I crossed the Burghat torrent; were the dawk road to pass this way it would be necessary to have a suspension bridge over it, likewise on most of these hill torrents. For the first
six miles the path is very circuitous, winding round the bases of several hills, there are many water courses, and the number of loose stones of all sizes strewed about, render it very painful to travel over. The Saul forest is very dense, and there are some very fine timbers, it continues so for five and a half miles. Our course thus far had upon the whole been north-easterly, we here turned to the southward, in which direction we continued for a short distance, and crossed a shallow running stream called Jurrítoora, flowing to the right; we then came upon an open spot in the centre of a beautiful plain, with fine mango topes around it; this is a Bunjara halting place; there was formerly a small hamlet close by, but during the disturbances between the Raja and the Sumbulpúr people, some years ago, it was destroyed. Half a mile further forward the same rivulet is recrossed, the road then turns to the eastward, and together with the stream passes through an exceedingly narrow defile, called Juraikilla, into the valley of Deogurh; the hills are exceedingly high on either side, those to the left (or north) have faces nearly perpendicular. There are the remains of a stone wall and of a stockade, by means of which the Deogurh people are said to have often successfully defended themselves against their invading enemies.
On passing the defile the valley appears in all its beauty, extending west to east as far as the eye can reach, widening with a perceptible fall in that direction which is towards the valley of the Brahmení river, into which the Jurrítoora rivulet empties itself, after winding along the valley at the foot of the hills skirting its southern boundary. The view from the pass, looking east, is exceedingly beautiful, indeed nothing could be more grand. About two miles in advance, I came to a large village called Kainsur, between which and the pass I had thrice to cross a large nullah and several smaller water-courses, over all of which it would be necessary to have bridges. After resting a little, I continued my journey, and passing several large villages, including old Deogurh, reached the modern town of that name, distant 13 miles from last ground. I found a large red and white tent ready pitched for me by the Raja's orders, and an abundance of supplies had been collected; this civility was quite unexpected, but there was probably a reason for it.
Deogarh is a large straggling village, distant one mile from the hills on the northern side of the valley, which may here be about two and a half miles wide. The Raja's Noor, or palace, together with some small temples are the only pucca buildings; there are small water
courses or aqueducts passing through every street and garden, the water being conducted from the famous cataracts which is in the hill just above the town; the fields for several miles are irrigated from these falls. I was too much fatigued on my arrival to look about me, added to which it was late in the day.
Although the apparent comfort of a tolerable good tent was thus provided, I had more reason for anger than pleasure, for I had sent on part of my guard and the Political Agent's Muktar (an Ooriya)—who had been so officious in attempting to prevent my coming by this route— to have a bower prepared in some shady spot, distant at least two miles from hence, and had given most positive orders on this head; for in the first place, I wished to avoid an interview with the Raja, travelling in the uncomfortable manner I was forced to do; secondly, I wished to put it out of the power of my followers to extort money, "Salami," from him, a regular practice with native servants of political establishments, particularly with the worthies of Cuttack, two of whom accompanied me on the present occasion. This kind of systematic plunder is perhaps one of the chief causes of aversion the inhabitants have to our making a thoroughfare in their different states.
I suffered more from the heat this, than on any of the previous days of my journey, but towards 3 P. M. a severe north-wester came on, followed by a heavy shower of rain, which cooled the atmosphere for the time being, but the steam from the wetted ground rendered the heat at night nearly suffocating.
The Raja paid me a visit at 5 P. M. he is a fine handsome lad, of about eighteen years of age, but rather effeminate; he does not appear to be very wise. He expressed great anxiety about the new road, and begged I would not bring it through Deogurh, as there were (of course) other much better paths, but that if I did do so, that Lehragurh and
* When I went on my tour to the Coal Mines of Talcher last year, I was informed, on credible authority, that a Chuprassie of the Commissioner's establishment who accompanied me, had declared that the trip was worth fifty Rupees to him, and that he wagered that he would not make less before he returned to Cuttack. This man subsequently gave me much trouble by his unceasing attempts to lead me by a round-about route through Dhenkennalgurh, Hindolegurh, Ungoolgurh, that he might secure the usual nuzzers which the Raja's offer on paying their first visit; and when he found that I was not to be led, he prevailed upon me to allow him to go to Dhenkennal with the Commissioner's Purwanah, assuring me that unless he did so I should get no supplies or aid; he again attempted the same trick in Ungool, but I prevented him, and suffered no small inconvenience in consequence; yet this man was the most active and best informed person on the establishment.