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It should be borne in mind that this is a rough calculation, and I can only give the probable amount. Most of these plants are very young, or have been recently cut down; a few years hence the plants may yield twice the above quantity. The first table exhibits the absolute produce of 1838. Now let us suppose a new settler were to take land in these parts; what would be his expenses if he were only to cultivate Tea, and had to clear forest land (in the vicinity of the Tea) ten times the size of Nowholeah, which is, say 400 by 200 yards, and which would cost him 200 Rupees to clear. Ten such tracts would cover 8,00,000 square yards. Now, to cover this surface of ground with Tea plants, and the plants six feet apart each way, 3,55,555 plants would be required; but if two plants were to be placed together, as I would recommend, then 7,11,110 plants would be required. The cost would probably be at the rate of five annas for 300 plants ; thus:

The clearing of 10 tracts, each 400 by 200 yards, 7,11,110 Tea plants, at 5 annas for 300,

2,000 0 0

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740 11 8

Planting the above,

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474 0 0

Weeding each tract 3 times each year, at 30 Rs. each tract,

900 0 0

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3 Maunds of Nails of sizes, at 10 Rs. per maund,

2 Elephants at 150 Rs. each

2 Elephant mahoots at 6 Rs. each per month,

2 Elephant mates at 4 Rs. each per month,

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30 0 0


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532 12 9


120 0 0

360 0 0

Lead for 888 boxes, at 3 seers per box containing 20 seers, at 8 Rs. per maund,

A Cooly sirdar at 10 Rs. per month,

10 Duffadars, or Overseers of coolies at 3 Rs. per month Coolies to collect leaves, 30 to each tract, 20 days to each crop; for 3 crops, or 60 days, at 3 Rs. for each man per month,

1,800 0 0

Carried over,.. 8,993 8 5

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2 Native Lead-canister makers, at 12 Rs. ditto, Coolies to bring in timber for Sawyers,

Brought over,.. 8,993

8 5

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5 Chinamen at 30 Rs. each per month,
120 Native Tea makers at 5 Rs. each, for 5 months, or

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Total outlay for 10 tracts, Co's. Rs. 16,591 8 5

Deduct charges that are not annual, viz.—

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Total annual outlay on 10 tracts, 12,287 8 5

Average produce of 3,55,555 tea plants at 4 Sa. Wt. each plant, is 444 Mds. or 17,777 Srs., or 35,554 lbs. at 2s., or 1 rupee, per pound, would be,


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35,554 0 0

Annual profit on 10 tracts, Co's. Rs. 23,266 77

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N. B. The deduction of 4304 Rs. not being annual outlay is not included in this calculation above 10 Tracts.

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It must be remembered that this calculation has been made on 3,55,555 plants, not on double that number as I proposed, viz. to plant them in pairs, which would certainly, on the lowest calculation, increase the profits thirty per cent. It should be borne in mind also, that 4 sicca weight is not the full produce of each plant; when full grown it will yield double that, or 8 sicca weight, and some even as high as 10 to 12 sicca weight. I have calculated at the rate of 4 sicca, which was absolutely produced in 1838. The plant will, I should think, produce 25 per cent more this year, and go on increasing to what I have above mentioned. But then, on the other hand, the items which I have set down, are not all that will be required to carry on this trade on an extensive scale. The superintendence, numerous additional artizans that will be required, and a thousand little wants which cannot be set down now, but which must necessarily arise from the nature of the cultivation and manufacture, will go far to diminish the profits, and swell the outlay; but this of course will last but a few years, until the natives of the country have been taught to compete with Chinamen. It should also be remembered, that the calculation I have made on ten tracts is on a supposition that we have a sufficient number of native Tea-makers and Canister-makers, which will not be the case for two or three years to come. It is on this point alone that we are deficient, for the Tea plants and lands are before us. Yes, there is another very great drawback to the cultivation of Tea in this country, and which I believe I before noticed, namely the want of population and labourers. They will have to be imported and settled on the soil, which will be a heavy tax on the first outlay; but this, too, will rectify itself in a few years; for, after the importation of some thousands, others will come of themselves, and the redundant population of Bengal, will pour into Assam, as soon as the people know that they will get a certain rate of pay, as well as lands, for the support of their families. If this should be the case, the Assamese language will in a few years be extinct.

I might here observe, that the British Government would confer a lasting blessing on the Assamese and the new settlers, if immediate and active measures were taken to put down the cultivation of Opium in Assam, and afterwards to stop its importation, by levying high duties on Opium land. If something of this kind is not done, and done quickly too, the thousands that are about to emigrate from the plains into Assam, will soon be infected with the Opium-mania,— that dreadful plague, which has depopulated this beautiful country, turned it into a land of wild beasts, with which it is overrun, and has degenerated the Assamese, from a fine race of people, to the most abject,

servile, crafty, and demoralized race in India. This vile drug has kept, and does now keep, down the population; the women have fewer children compared with those of other countries, and the children seldom live to become old men, but in general die at manhood; very few old men being seen in this unfortunate country, in comparison with others. Few but those who have resided long in this unhappy land know the dreadful and immoral effects, which the use of Opium produces on the native. He will steal, sell his property, his children, the mother of his children, and finally even commit murder for it. Would it not be the highest of blessings, if our humane and enlightened Government would stop these evils by a single dash of the pen, and save Assam, and all those who are about to emigrate into it as Tea cultivators, from the dreadful results attendant on the habitual use of Opium? We should in the end be richly rewarded, by having a fine, healthy race of men growing up for our plantations, to fell our forests, to clear the land from jungle and wild beasts, and to plant and cultivate the luxury of the world. This can never be effected by the enfeebled Opium-eaters of Assam, who are more effeminate than women. I have dwelt thus long on the subject, thinking it one of great importance, as it will affect our future prospects in regard to Tea; also from a wish to benefit this people, and save those who are coming here, from catching the plague, by our using timely measures of prevention.

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2 Ditto Green-Tea makers, at 15:8:6 each,

1 Ditto Tea-box maker,

1 Ditto Lead-canister maker,

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120 0 0

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Carried over,... 1,122 14 0

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Total monthly expenditure, 1,347 0 6

or 16,000 a year, not including coolies and other items. It should be remembered that this establishment has been confined to a few tracts as an experiment, and has never been fully worked. The Chinese Green-Tea makers, Canister-makers and Interpreter, have lately been added to the establishment; their services have not as yet been brought into account. We are just now availing ourselves of them by making Green-Tea; and as the natives at present placed under them become available, large quantities of excellent Green-Tea will be manufactured. I suppose two Chinamen might qualify twenty-four natives for the first process; the second, as I have already recommended, might be performed in England, which in my humble opinion would effect a great saving, by getting machinery to do the greater part of the work. At all events, it never could be manufactured in Assam without a great expense, and this for want of labourers. However, it is gratifying to see how fast the Chinese acquire the Assamese language; for, after they have been a year in the country, they begin to speak sufficiently well for all ordinary purposes, so that an interpreter can very well be dispensed with. Our Chinamen can speak the Assamese language much better than the interpreter can the English language. They are a violent, headstrong, and passionate people, more especially as they are aware we are so much in their power. If the many behave as do the few, a Thannah would be necessary to keep them cool.

With respect to what are called the Singpho Tea tracts, I am sorry to say we have not been able this year to get a leaf from them, on account of the disturbances that have lately occurred there; nor do I believe we shall get any next year, unless we establish a post at Ningrew, which I think is the only effectual way to keep the country quiet, and secure our Tea. The Tea from these tracts is said by the Chinamen to be very fine. Some of the tracts are very extensive, and

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