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5th June. -Strong breezes; ship under double reefed topsails, wind SW.; at noon Juggernaut Pagoda NEĮE. eighteen miles; at 5° 30' P. M. the Black Pagoda bore NWWW. fifteen or sixteen miles; wind now increasing to a severe gale at S.; hove the ship too under easy sail; head from ESE. to EbN. but the wind drew gradually round to the SW.; the sea continued at SE. and the ship laboured most tremendously ; at midnight it began to moderate, and blew a fresh breeze from SW. whịch carried us to Point Palmiras by 5 o'clock P. M. on 6th June. When the severe part of the gale commenced at 5° 30' P. m. 5th June, the Black Pagoda bore NWWW. sixteen miles; the Ther. was 86°, Bar. 29° 10', Simp. 29° 25'; the lowest we had it; and it began to rise at 10 A. M., Simp. first, then Bar. about an hour after. We must have escaped a great part of the gale as the SE. sea was very high, but we never had the wind from that quarter; the severe part with us was from SSW.
Captain Hookey says in another letter to me—the reason of our laying too so much was not caused by stress of weather, but from our having carried away our fore topmast, and fore and main topgallant masts in a severe squall from the NE. on the 2nd in the afternoon; I therefore laid too till the ship was again prepared to run for the Sand Heads
No. 13. — Ship“Justina,” Extract from her log forwarded by Capt.
T. II. Bentley 3rd June, 1839.- Nautical time.--Monday night at 2 A. M. squally; in royals and flying jib (ship's head NELE. wind NNW.) in fore and mizen topgallant sails. At 5 A. M. heavy appearance to the N. reefed the driver, sent down royal yards.
At 8 A. M., ship’s head NE. wind NNW., gale increasing; in 2nd reef of the topsails; at 9 A. M. heavy squalls with heavy rain ; up mainsail ; at 10 gale increasing, up foresail, in mizen topsail ; heavy squalls with rain ; at noon ship’s head ENE. wind N., furled mainsail, wore ship. Lat. Obs. 19° 14' N.
Tuesday, 4th June. Wore ship to the westward ; at 1 P. M. ship's head WSW. wind NW. strong breezes and squally, close reefed the fore topsail, furled the fore sail; at 3 p. m. gale increasing, in 3rd reef of the main topsail, in driver; at 5 P. M. ship's head SWW. wind NW. heavy cross sea running, ship pitching heavy; at 6 gale increasing fast with heavy squalls and constant rain.
At 7 ship's head SW W. wind NW.; at 9 ship's head SWW. pitched bowsprit under, carried away the jib boom, fore topgallant
mast and main royal mast; cut away the jib and flying jibboom; made the fore topgallant mast fast to the topmast rigging; at 11 hard squalls with a high sea running. At midnight ship's head SWbS. wind NW. At 2 A. M. severe gale, with a tremendous sea running; at 3 ship's head SW. wind WbN. the fore topmast staysail blew to atoms, ship lying with the lee bulwarks under water; at 4 heavy gales with severe squalls and constant heavy rain ; at 8 bent another fore topmast staysail; at 9 A. M. ship’s head SbE. wind WSW.) at noon hard and severe gales, the fore yard arm at times in the water.
Wednesday, 5th June. At l P. M. ship’s head south ; wind WSW. at 3 a heavy sea filled the quarter boat, the fore davit gave way, let the boat in the water, cut away the after fall the boat being stove; a heavy sea with severe squalls ; at 5 P. M. ship’s head SbE. wind SWW. more moderate; at 6 wore ship to the NW.; at 7 set fore trysail; at 8 ship's head WNW.; wind SWS.; at 11 more moderate, set the foresail ; at 1 A. M. ship’s head NW., wind sw. brisk gales with passing squalls and rain; at daylight got the fore topgallant mast and royal mast on deck; at 8 set fore topsail ; at 9 out 3rd reef of the main topsail ; at 11 got all clear, at noon moderate and cloudy. Lat. by Obs. 18° 15' N. long. by Chron. 85° 11' E.
No. 14.-Ship" Ann Lockerby," Capt. Burt.- Extract sent. Tuesday, June the 4th. In lat. 18° 55' N. and long. 86° 30' it commenced to blow heavy; the wind from N. to NNW. the height of the barometer was 28° 75' and raining heavy; the gale still kept increasing till the morning of the 5th at 8 A. M. when it blew a complete hurricane, the wind at NNW. and it shifted round to WSW.; about noon the barometer was standing at 28° 15'; the ship at that time was in lat. 19° 5' N. and long. 87° 6' E.
No. 15.-Ship“ Eden,” Capt. W. D. Cook. 3rd June, Civil Time-Lat. 18° 22' N. long, 86° 1' E. P. M. strong winds variable WSW. to WNW. with rain. Barom. 29° 40'. 4 P.M. the same; with a heavy sea running ; wind west ; 8 P. M. increasing winds, in jib, mainsail, and mizen. Barom. 29° 30' ditto weather, wind N.; 4 A. M. strong winds and squally ; wind NWbN. ; 8 a. m. hard gales, wore ship to the southward, Barometer 29° 10'; noon ditto weather, sun obscured; wind West, under bare poles ; 4 P. M. hard gales with heavy squalls and a tremendous sea running; wind SWbW. Barometer 29° 00'. 4th June. Midnight blowing a perfect hurricane at WSW. without intermission. Barom. 28° 80' 4. A. M. ditto weather
Barom. 28° 70'; 6 A. M. struck by a heavy sea which hove the ship on her beam ends, shifted a great part of the ballast, washed the man from the helm, and part of the bulwarks away. 8. A. M. ditto weather, ship labouring heavily; set a storm mizen staysail. Wind WSW. Barom. 28° 60'. Noon ditto winds, with continued heavy rain, Barom. 28° 60'; 4 P. M. gale a little abated, set the main topsail close reefed. Barom. 28° 70'; 8 P. M. heavy squalls with lulls at times. Midnight, more moderate ; set the foresail. Barom. 28° 80' 4 A. M. Out two reefs main topsail, and set the fore out double reefed ; 8 A. M. set the reefed mainsail ; wind SW. Barom. 29o. Noon, strong breezes and hazy with less sea. Lat. observation 18° 1' N. long. Chro. 86° 52' E. Barom. 29° 25'. June 6th. Moderate weather; got soundings under the Black Pagoda at 2 A. M.
No. 16.--Masulipatam, 15th July, 1839. Dear Sir,-I have the pleasure to send you an extract from my Journal, we had neither thunder nor lightning, but there was a very heavy sea rolling in from the Eastward. I have not a Simpiesometer.
No. 17.-Extract from the log of the Brig “ Nine,” Captain Denny,
in the Bay of Bengal, June 1839. Saturday, 1st June, Nautical time.--Strong gale throughout, with heavy squalls and showers of rain, wind WbS. No observation. Lat. by account 14° 7' N. long. 85° 28' E., Bar. 28° 7', Ther. 82o.
Sunday, 2nd June.--Heavy gale throughout, with constant rain and heavy squalls, wind WbS. No observation. Lat. by account 16° 7' N., long. account 85° 52' E. Bar. 28° 6'. Ther. 83°
Monday, 3rd June.—Strong gale throughout, with heavy squalls and rain. Wind WbS. No observation. Lat. by account 17° N., long. 86° 16' E. Bar. 28° 6'. Ther. 84°
Tuesday, 4th June.-First and middle parts strong gale, latter more moderate, wind WbS. Lat. by account 17° 36', long. 86° 43' E.
Wednesday, 5th June.-Fresh gale throughout, with heavy squalls and showers of rain. Lat. by observation 18° 39' N., long. Chro. 88° 18' E.: On getting an observation, found we had a set of 60' to the southward during the gale; wind S. W.
No. 18.— The ship “ Elizabeth,” of Glasgow, Captain Denar; homenard bound, left the Pilot, according to her protest, on the 29th May.
On the 20 June, in lat. about 16° N. and long. 88° E. she experienced a very severe gale from the SW. with a heavy cross sea; hove too ; but the sea was washing over her continually. About midnight she was struck by a heavy sea on the quarter, which started the whole of her stern frame; she bore up with seven feet water in her hold to the NE. and on the 3rd again hove too with her head to the NW. The wind hauling to the SW. she bore up about NNW. for the Sand Heads but could only reach Laccam's channel, where the vessel was driven on shore and lost; the captain and crew reaching Calcutta in a state of great distress and exhaustion through the Sunderbunds.
No. 19.-Ship“ Jumna,” Captain Robinson. 1st June, Nautical time.---Lat. 12° 25' N. long. 85° E. dark gloomy weather, with much lightning to the NWbN. and NE. quarters, the wind freshening to a gale from W. or WSW. The barometer had been falling for several days before.
2nd June.-Lat. 15° 20' N., long. 85° 30' E. The gale continuing from W. with much rain.
3rd June.—Heavy gale from W. to WSW. generally ; with lightning and ceaseless rain, and looking awfully dark to the NW. and N. The wind at times offering to shift in that direction, but never got further than WNW. and only remained there for a short time. Lat. 16° 40' N. long. 85° 30' E. at noon.
4th June.—The gale continuing, but blowing more in heavy squalls, with torrents of rain. The barometer 29° 19' inches, lat. 17° 10' N. long. 85° 35' E. ; P. M. more moderate ; wind SW. fair, with hazy weather.
No. 20.— The Brig“ Laurel Amelia” from Coringa towards Chittagong left Coringa roads, 3rd June, Nautical time, at 5 P. M. with light southerly breezes and clear weather; during the night the wind veered to West; at noon it was West, with drizzling rain and strong gales. Lat. and long. omitted in this log.
4th June.-Westerly winds, strong gales, vessel under courses, steering Eastward. During the night increasing gale, ship labouring very much ; daylight the same, and weather very threatening, with a heavy sea on; prepared every thing for bad weather; noon, hard gales. No observation. Lat. by acct. 16° 56' N. long. 82° 58' E.
5th June.-P. M. hard gales with drizzling rain, increasing at midnight to a hurricane from the Westward. Daylight, and till noon, scud. ding under bare poles and laboring very much. No observation ; lat. 17° 22' N. long. 83° 44' E. by account.
6th June.- Towards sunset hurricane abating a little; at midnight moderating ; daylight under the foresail; noon more moderate, set the topsails. No observation. Lat. by acct. 18° 19'. N. long. 84° 29' E. On the 7th the weather fine.
It is clear that this vessel, being on the south side of the vortex made a fair wind of the hurricane ; but the latitudes and longitudes must be wholly erroneous, since, though scudding before a hurricane from the Westward they give a NE. course made good along the shore ! Captain Elson, of Chittagong, to whose politeness I am indebted for this log and that of the “ Louisa” and “ John William Dare," informs me that the last only is to be depended upon, as the Chittagong vessels are rarely provided with good instruments or able navigators. I have however felt myself bound to mark the track as here given, though I think it probable that on the 5th she was at least two degrees further to the Eastward, and I have therefore marked also her probable position.
The following very interesting remarks I received on the arrival of the "Mobile” from the Mauritius. It will be recollected that this ship was one of the outward-bound; having left her pilot on the 23rd May. I regret much that no latitudes and longitudes accompanied the first letter, so that I could only mark this vessel's drift approximatively on the chart as it was going to press ; for this cause too this vessel is omitted upon the diagrams of the gale. No. 21.-Extract from the log of the ship "Mobile," on a voyage from
Calcutta to Mauritius, forwarded by Captain Ogilvy. For several days prior to the 2nd June the weather was for the season of the year remarkably fine, and the wind instead of Sw. was veering round the compass.
We had reached the latitude of 15° N. long. 84o E. in seven days from the Pilot. On the morning of the 2nd the swell increased considerably from the South, and at noon the mercury in the barometer, which had remained for some days steady at 29° 90', was affected, and commenced falling fast. At this time (noon) we had a moderate breeze from the NNW. and the appearance of the