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N. B. This gale extended in breadth from Mootebarry, 60 miles North of Chuprah, to Gyah, 90 miles South-and perhaps further, but of this I have no authentic intelligence.
As far then as our present knowledge extends, and referring to the state of the Gale in the Southern part of the Bay, we find that the impulse, which may be said to begin to be violently felt on the 31st by the Susan, did not reach Chuprah till the 4th, when it produced an Easterly Gale, terminating on the 7th, shifting to the South-West and West on the 8th; the counter-gale and eddies, if we may so call them, being only the irregular movements of the various currents produced by this great derangement of the usual equilibrium of the aerial currents, which, as is remarked, are usually from the East at this season; affording also a proof towards the theory which I have ventured to offer. When the monsoon slackens the Southerly and South-Westerly gales, and currents may find their way as far inland as this place. The dates show that the Gale did not begin at the point to which it blew, but that it was a progressive impulse travelling about the direction which I have laid down. Assuming this theory as a guide only, let us now see how it accords with the facts we already possess here. By referring to the Map, No. II. we see that though along the coast from Madras to Vizagapatam, by the Indian Oak's log at Masulipatam, by the Master Attendant's report from Coringa, and up to the 3rd at noon by the Laurel Amelia's log, it was fine, though threatening; yet from the 31st May to the 5th June, by the logs of the Lady Macnaghten, Petrel, Susan, Jumna, and Laurel Amelia-to which too we might add those of the Nine, Eden, and Mobile-a severe gale was blowing between WbS. and SW. diagonally across the Bay, in lines about parallel to one drawn from the centre of Ceylon to Cape Negrais, the termination of the Arracan coast. We find that at Cheduba on the
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2nd, and part of the 3rd, the John William Dare had a severe gale from S. to SSE. the gale being then deflected by the mountains of that coast. At the harbour of Akyab No. 27. we find that our meagre notices give us "Easterly winds with hard gales" on the 2nd; on the 3rd, and 4th," brisk;" on the 5th, "gales ;" and on the 6th, SW. winds.
At Dacca* Dr. Lamb's Register gives as follows:
So that here the winds were varying between South and East.
At Jellinghee, in lat. 24° 8', long. 88° 42′ E. about 140 miles WbN. of Dacca, and about 100 NbE. of Calcutta, at the spot where the river of that name branches off from the great Ganges, a memorandum informs me as follows:
June 6th, strong Easterly gales with frequent showers.
8th and 9th, Frequent showers and cloudy weather.
The following is an extract of a letter and memorandum from H. B. Beresford, Esq. Deputy Collector, Purneah.
"The observations from 4th to 10th inclusive, in the following memorandum, were made on the Ganges, some miles south of Purneah-at least so I understand Mr. Palmer to say :"
Transcript of Extract of Day Book, 1839.
Wind E. blew hard and rained in the morning.
Wind E. a warın clear day.
Wind E. clear morning, rained heavily in the afternoon, and blew hard
from South at night.
Wind E. blew fresh.
A strong gale from the East-rained a great deal-a wet rainy night.
Wind S. and SE.
Blew hard the whole day from the East, and squalls accompanied with rain came frequently.
Wind SE. in the morning-East at noon; died away in the afternoon, rained a little.
Wind East-rained a great deal and blew fresh.
10th. Wind ESW. and E. again-rained a great deal.
The Indigo planters of the district of Dacca and the Eastern part of Jessore are well aware of the tendency of strong Easterly winds to cause rapid rises of the river, and severe loss to them by inundating their plant. If we suppose the Easterly gale to be a Southerly and South Westerly one in the Bay, we obtain an additional reason for this, to the common one of the Easterly gale being partly against the current of the Ganges; i. e. the waters of the ocean are driven up into the NE, corner of the Bay.
"The inclosed notes I made in original, and regret not having it in my power to comply more fully with your request."
Heavy ENE. wind, very cloudy with light showers.
Ditto ENE. with constant sleet and rain.
Heavy ENE. with sleet, wind veered S. to SSE. occasional showers. 8th. Heavy ENE. veering round to South with rain-night, Northerly.
Fresh ENE. cloudy with heavy showers.
10th. Rain almost all day-clouds flying from East-Light airs from West, a great deal of rain has fallen, the nullahs rising very high, threatening to overtop their banks.*
At Ghazeepore lat. 25° 35' N. long. 83° 33' E. and 41 miles East of Benares and 84 miles W.S. from Chuprah, Dr. Jackson kindly forwards me a journal for the month of June, from which the following is an extract, which I copy to the 11th, to shew how remarkably they agree with those of Mr. Ravenshaw from Chuprah, in the sudden change of the wind, from ESE.-which we may call its average from the 1st to the 7th,-to SW. on the 8th. The subsequent changes seem to indicate, as before said, that the more direct current of the monsoon had for a short time forced its way upwards; for the remainder of the month the wind is variable from E. to W. with sultry weather, as usual there in the month of June.
June, 1839.-Remarks, &c.
Pleasant breezes, fair weather, 11 A. M. cloudy with a few drops of rain, hot and sultry.
Light breezes, fair weather, hoi and sultry.
Fresh ditto, cloudy, at intervals hot and sultry; at 1/30 P. M. a squall, no rain.
96 Fresh breezes, cloudy at intervals, with hard squalls, fair
A. M. cloudy and showery, hard gales with showers at intervals.
Dark cloudy rainy weather, with hard squalls of wind, 6 P. M.
9 SW.to ESE. 80 Morning dark, cloudy and fair, which continued throughout, 5
In the Northern parts of the district much more rain fell, both the Coosey and Mahanuddee were uncommonly high for the time of the year.