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Spec. B. progeneius, * J. M. t. 56. f. 3.

Cyp. tor, Buch. Coll.

Length of the head to that of the body as one to three, twenty-six scales along the lateral line, and six in an oblique row from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum, with a large cellular appendage to the apex of the lower jaw. D.12: P.16: V.9: A.7: C.19.

Hab. Great rivers in the plains of India. Ordinary length from 1 to 3 feet.

Spec. B. macrocephalus, J. M. t. 55. f. 2.

Bura hetea of the Assamese.

Length of the head to that of the body as two to five, twenty-seven scales along the lateral line, and six in an oblique line from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum. D.II: P.16: V.10:A.7: C.19.

HAB. Rapids in Upper Assam. Ordinary length from 2 to 34 feet. Spec. B. hexagonolepis, † t. 41. f. 3.

Bokar of the Assamese.

Length of the head to that of the body as one to four, exposed surface of the scales hexagonal, twenty-seven scales along the lateral line, and seven in an oblique line from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum. D.12: P.16:

10 V.9 : A.7: C.g

HAB. Upper Assam. Ordinary length from 14 to 24 feet.
Variet. Cyp. putitora, Buch.

Head small and blunt, with eleven rays in the dorsal, attaining occasion.

ally nine feet in length. I
Spec. B. megalepis, ļ Hardw. Illust. t. 93.

Cyp. mosal, Buch.
Mahdseer of the Hindus.
Body below uniformly arched at the insertion of the anal, length of the

10 head to that of the body as one to three. D.13: P.17: V.9: A.7: C.

ទី: HAB. Northern parts of Bengal. Length occasionally four or five feet. Spec. B. chelynoides, J. M. t. 57. f. 5. Jour. A. S. vii. t. 56. f. 5.

Head large, lips thick and smooth, thirty-three scales along the lateral line, and nine in an oblique line from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum. D.10: P.16: V.9: A.7: C.18.

HAB. Mountain streams at Simla. Usual size about six inches in length.

Dr. Macleod's Coll. From II poyeveloç, that has a prominent chin or long beard ; in allusion to the singular appendage to the lower jaw of this species by which it may be easily recognized # In allusion to the form of the exposed portion of the scales.

This fish I have been unable to identify with Buchanan's description, I may therefore have described it under another name; he says the head is blunt, oval, small, and smooth, which scarcely applies to either of the foregoing, in which the head is remarkably lengthened; that of B. hexagonolepis would come nearest to it, though some of the others seem to correspond more in other respects with the account given. Pisc. Gang. 303.

§ From Mega large, and lepis a scale.

“OBs. The following five species have the dorsal spine serrated behind. The first three are probably varieties of the same species. Spec. Cyp. sarana. Buch. P. G. p. 307.

Cyp. kanta, id Coll.
Cyp. kunamo Russ?

Head blunt, oval, and small, with a small bone at either side of the upper lip, green above, below silvery, scales large. D.10 : P.16: V.9: A.8: C.19.

Hab. Ponds and rivers in India. Rarely attaining two feet in length, Spec. B. spilopholus, * J. M. t. 39. f. 4.

Head much compressed, cheeks and snout perforated with mucous pores, forty-eight scales along the lateral line, and seventeen in an oblique row from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum ; each scale marked with a

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black spot at the base. D.11 : P.15 :V.9: A.7:0;

Hab. Northern parts of Bengal.
Variet. Cyp. chagunio, Buch. P. G.

Scales large and spotted at the base, head much compressed, with numerous prominent mucous pores on its fore part. D.12: P.15: V.10: A.8: C.19.

Hab. Northern parts of Bengal. Spec. B. diliciosus, J. M. t. 39. f. 3.

Head short and blunt, thirty-four scales along the lateral line, eleven in an oblique line from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum, with a bright gold coloured spot on each operculum. D.12: P.16: V.9: A.7:C.19.

HAB. Assam. Ordinary size about 10 inches in length. Spec. B. rododactylus,t J. M.

Fins red and orange, except the dorsal and upper lobe of the caudal, ten rays in the dorsal.

Has. Lower Assam. Usual size about 5 inches in length.

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" SUB-Gen.-OREINUSI J. M.-MOUNTAIN BARBELS. “Cuar. Head Aeshy, mouth vertical, lower jaw shorter than the upper, snout muscular and projecting, furnished with cirri, dorsal preceded by a serrated spinous ray, scales small.

“OBs. Intestinal canal and stomach form a tube equal to about four or five lengths of the body, including the head and caudal.

* From spilos a spot, and pholis a scale. Rododaktylos, literally rosy-fingered, in allusion to its red fins. # From Oreinos, pertaining to mountains. This genus has been since published by M.' Von Heckel a German naturalist, from the collections taken home to Europe by Baron Hugel on which Mr. M'Clelland observes page 455 “ that it would really seem as if we intended to leave all that requires either intellect or observation to discover in the productions of India to our neighbours on the continent, &c. &c. To be fairly rivalled in any pursuits where facilities are equal between the parties would be bad enough, but to be indebted to strangers for a knowledge of the productions of our own country argues a fault somewhere, but where that fault lies it might be a delicate question to enquire, as none of us I fear, would be altogether free from a share of the reproach.”

Spec. 0. guttatus, J. M. t. 39. f. 1.

Head covered with thick integuments, branchial apertures small, sides and fins irregularly marked with brown spots, scales minute. D.10: P. 17: V.ll: A.10: C.20.

HAB. Mountain streams in Boutan, at an elevation of about 5000 feet, where it was found by Mr. Griffith.

Spec. Cyprinus Richardsonii, Gray. Hardw. Illust. t. 94. f. 2.

About eleven rays in the dorsal, and nine in the anal, back speckled with minute dots.

Spec. 0. maculatus. J. M. t. 57. f. 6. Journ. A. S. vii. t. 56. f. 6.

Mouth situated on the lower surface of the head, small shapeless spots irregularly distributed over the body, but not on the fins, scales minute. D.11: P.18: V.10: A.5: C.19.

HAB. Mountain streams at Simla, elevated between 5000 and 6000 feet, where it was found by Dr. Macleod.

Spec. 0. progastus, + J. M. t. 40. f. 4. Adoee of the Assamese.

Muzzle fleshy and pointed, lips thick, somewhat pendulous and muscular, abdomen very prominent beneath the pectorals. D.12: P.13: V. 10: A.7: C.19.

Hab. Rapids in Upper Assam, where it occasionally attains 18 inches in length, but its flesh is believed to produce vertigo and other alarming effects on those who use it.

“ III. Gen.-CYPRINUS PROPRIUS.

“Char. Body elevated, lower jaw short and rounded in front, lips hard, thick, and without cirri ; dorsal long. Dorsal and anal usually preceded by spinous rays.

“OBs. Only two species of this group have been as yet found in India, and one of these is without the dorsal and anal spinous rays. I

Spec. C. semiplotus, J. M. t. 37. f. 2. Sentooree of the Assamese.

Head slightly depressed, with a single row of large mucous pores extending horizontally in front of the snout, back gibbous, thirty-two scales along the lateral line, and ten in an oblique row from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum. D.27: P.16: V.9: A.9: C.19.

HAB. The rapids of the Bramaputra in Upper Assam. Usual size 1 foot to 14 in length.

* This may probably prove to be 0. guttatus. + IIpoyaotwç, that has a prominent belly.

| They have little affinity to each other; in C. semiplotus, the head is small and fleshy, so as to conceal the opercular plates, and in C. catla, it is large with naked opercula.

Spec. C. catla, Buch. P. G. t. xiii. f. 81.

Head large, forty-four scales along the lateral line, and fourteen in an oblique row from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum. Dorsal and anal without spinous rays. D.18: P.18: V.9: A.8: C.19.

Hab. Fresh-water rivers and ponds in Bengal and Assam. Ordinary size from 14 to 3 feet in length, but occasionally it is found twice that size.

“IV. Gen.-GOBIO. " CHAR. The dorsal is placed over the ventrals, and like the anal is short and without spines, lower jaw shorter than the upper, and is either round or square in front, lips thin and hard, snout prominent.

“OBs. The Gudgeons thus defined are a very natural group, remarkable for the extraordinary length of the abdominal canal. One of the only two indicated by Cuvier from Buchanan's species, is an Opsarion, a genus no less remarkable for the shortness of the abdominal canal than the Gudgeons are for its length; but as the distinctions on which the subdivisions of the family are here made, have not before been observed, we cannot be surprised, that it should be repeated in the last edition of the Regné Animal from Linnæus, that the stomach of Cyprinide " is continuous with a short intestine.” The following five species have each two cirri.

Spec. Cyp. mrigala, Buch. t. 38. f. I. P. G. t. 6. f. 7.

Length of the head to that of the body as one to four and a half, depth of the body about one-fourth of the length, forty-four scales along the lateral line, and fourteen in an oblique line from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum. D.16: P.17: V.9: A.8: C.19.

HAB. Rivers and ponds throughout Bengal and Assam. Ordinary length two feet. Variet. Rewah of the Natives, t. 58. f. I.

Head less compressed than the body, upper jaw somewhat prominent, forty-three scales on the lateral line and thirteen in an oblique line from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum. D.15: P.16: V.9: A.8: C.19.

HAB. Ponds in the vicinity of Calcutta. Length from 6 to 12 inches. Spec. Cyp. curmuca, Buch. Jour. Mys. III. t. 30.

Snout prominent and furnished with tubercles or mucous pores, lips smooth, and on each there is a small bone. D.II: P.16: V.9: A.8: C.18.

Hab. Rivers in Southern India, where it occasionally reaches three feet

in length. Spec. Cyp. reba, Buch. P. G. p. 280.

Head blunt, mouth small and directed downwards, lips soft. D.11: P.17 : V.9: A.8: C.19.

Hab. Northern parts of Bengal and Behar, where it attains two feet in length.

Spec. Cyp. acra, Buch. P. G. p. 284.

Cyp. angra, id. Coll.
Cyp. Hamiltonii, Gray, Hardw. Illust. t. 86. f. I.
Lasseem of the Assamese.

Snout prominent and fleshy, thirty-five scales along the lateral line, and fourteen in an oblique line from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum. D.10: P.10: V.9: A.8: C.19.*

HAB. Bramaputra.
Spec. G. lissorhynchus.† J. M. t. 55. f. 5.

Snout smooth and blunt without cirri, thirty-nine scales along the lateral line, and thirteen from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum. D.ll: P.16 : V.9: A.8: C.19.

HAB. Large Rivers of Bengal and Assam. Usual length 6 to 9 inches. “In the six following species the scales are thin and rough, and generally placed so that each scale is in the axis of the one immediately preceding or succeeding, and not in regular oblique rows as is usual in the family; but this peculiarity is not so well marked in some species as in others. They are all without cirri. Spec. Cyp. bangon, Buch. Coll. t. 58 f. 2.2

Cyp. cura, id. P. G. p. 384.
Snout smooth without cirri, scales in parallel rows with a grey line

10
between each row. D.12 : P.15: V.9.: A.7: C.g.

HAB. Bengal, where it attains a size of eight or ten inches. Spec. Cyp. boga, Buch. P. G. t. 28. f. 80.

Snout perforated with numerous mucous pores, lower lip fimbriated, scales raised on either side of the base of the dorsal, lobes of the caudal slightly divided. D.12 : P.-1.9: A.8:0.

HAB. Bramaputra. Usual length about nine inches. Spec. G. bicolor, J. M. t. 40. f. I.

Snout smooth, long, and rather pointed, lower jaw shorter than the upper, forty-two scales on the lateral line, thirteen in an oblique row from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum. Blue above, beneath silvery, pectorals small. D.12 : P.16: V.9: A.7 : C.19.

HAB. Rivers on the northern side of Assam. Griff. Coll. Spec. G. anisurus, I J. M. t. 40. f. 2.

Snout blunt, lower jaw shorter than the upper, lips hard and smooth, thirtynine scales along the lateral line, and thirteen in an oblique row from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum, lower lobe of the caudal longer than

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the upper. D.12: P.17: V.9: A.7: C.-

To
HAB. Upper Assam. Griff. Coll.

* Buchanan gives the fin rays as D.11 : P.18 or 19: V.9: A.8: C.19.
† From lissor smooth, and rhynchus the snout.

From anisos unequal, and oura a tail.

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