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Variet. Cyp. bata, Buch. P. G. p. 383.
Upper lobe of the caudal longer than the lower, with an ill defined transverse bar, ventrals smaller than the pectorals. D.12: P.17: V.9: A.8: C.19.
HAB. Rivers and ponds in Bengal, where it attains a foot in length.
Spec. G. limnophilus,* J. M. t. 55. f. 3.
Scales in parallel rows, thirty-six in each row, and twelve across the body. D.10: P.19: V.9: A.7: C.19.
HAB. Ponds in Bengal. Length 12 inches.
"In the remaining species the scales are as usual in oblique rows. Spec. Cyp. pungusia, Buch. t. 42. f.1. ẞt
Snout fleshy, porous, and prominent, forty-one scales along the lateral line, and fifteen across the body; lips fimbriated. D.14: P.18: V.9: A.7 · C.19.
HAB. Bengal, where it attains a span in length.
Spec. Cyp. ariza, Buch. Jour. Mys. 111. t. 31.
Snout and under lip smooth, twelve rays in the dorsal; in other respects it resembles the last.
Spec. G. ricnorhynchus, J. M. t. 55. f. 1.
Snout thick and wrinkled, forty-three scales along the lateral line, and ten across the body from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum. D.12: P.17. V.9: A.7: C.19.
HAB. Northern parts of Bengal, here it was found by Mr. Hodgson. Spec G. malacostomus,‡ J. M.
C. falcata, Gray Hardw. Illust. t.-?§
Nepura of the Assamese.
Snout thick, fleshy, and perforated with numerous large mucous pores, margins of the lips double and fimbriated. D. 12: P.16: V.9: A.8: C.19. HAB. Rapids in Upper Assam. Length from six to twelve inches. Mr. Griffith's Coll.
"CHAR. Mouth situated under the head, which is long and covered with thick integuments, body long and sub-cylindrical, snout perforated by numerous mucous pores, dorsal and anal short, opposite, and without spines. The intestine and stomach form a continuous tube about eight lengths of the body.
* From Aquvn a swamp or lake, and piλoç to love or frequent.
+ Its form is not so slender as represented in the figure. Buchanan also gives seventeen rays to each pectoral, and eight to the anal.
† From μαλακος soft, and στομα the mouth.
This plate is not numbered in Hardwicke's Illustrations, nor is it included in the list of plates prefixed to the volume.
"OBS. This genus hitherto rested on a single species long since found at the Cape of Good Hope, but the Garra of Buchanan chiefly belong to it, as well as several species which have since been found in India. "The first three species are without cirri.
Spec G. gobioides, J. M. t. 43. f. 1. Herilwa of the Assamese.
Altitude of the body to its length as one to four, thirty-seven scales along the lateral line, and nine in an oblique row from the base of the ventrals to the dorsum. D.10: P.15: V.9: A.7: C.19.
HAB. Bramaputra, in Assam. Length about a span.
Spec. G. petrophilus, J. M. Jour. Asiat. Soc. iv. t. 1.
Scales very minute, body and head long, eight rays in the dorsal.
Spec. G. rupicolus, J. M. t. 43. f. 4, 5.
Snout thick and smooth, pectorals rounded;† fins short, and the membrane in which their rays are enclosed thick and opaque; thirty-five scales along the lateral line, and nine in an oblique row across the body. D.8: P.10: V.9: A.6: C.20.
HAB. Mishmee mountains. Length about two inches. Griffith's Coll. Spec. G. bimaculatus, J. M.
Snout warty, porous, and divided by a fissure, without cirri; a black spot at the base of the caudal, lower lobe of the caudal longer than the upper, thirty-four scales along the lateral line and eight rows between the ventrals, and dorsum; pectorals and ventrals lanceolate. D.9: P.13: V.9: A.7:
HAB. River Laech at the foot of the Mishmee mountains, where it was found by Mr. Griffith.
Spec. Cyp. lamta, Buch. t. 43. f. 2. ẞ P. G. p. 343.
Cyp. godiyava, id. Coll.
Four very short cirri, pectorals and ventrals lanceolate, and a black spot on either side of the tail, snout thick and warty. D.10: P.13: V.9: A.7: C.19.
HAB. Northern parts of Bengal, where it attains 2 or three inches in length.
Spec. G. gotyla, Gray, Hardw. Illust. t. 88. f. 3.
Snout thick, and divided by a deep transverse fissure in which numerous large mucous pores are situated, a fleshy pendulous point at each corner of the mouth; four minute cirri.
Mountains of India.
The habits of this species are fully described, but we want to know more of its specific characters.
The form of the pectorals is not accurately represented in the figure.
Also at the foot of the Nipal mountains, where Mr. Hodgson appears to have found a specimen now in the Asiatic Society's collection. In this, however, the lobes of the caudal are of equal length. It is so like the succeeding variety that I have thought it unnecessary to figure it separately.
Spec. G. fimbriatus, t. 43. f. 3.ß
Cyp. sada, Buch. P. G.
Four cirri little shorter than the head, pectorals and ventrals falcate. D.10: P.-? V.9: A.7.
HAB. Northern parts of Bengal, where it attains a few inches in length.
"The remaining three have each two small cirri.
Spec. G. macrosomus,* t. 43. f. 7. B
Cyp. latius, Buch P. G. p. 346.
Depth of the body to the entire as one to six, two cirri, scales small, D.11: P.13: V 9: A. 7: C.20.
Is shorter in proportion, and more arched above and below than the former, and has eight rays in the anal.
HAB. Northern parts of Bengal.
Spec. G. brachypterus, J. M.
Lower surface of the head flat with a cartilaginous zone behind the mouth like G. rupiculus,† a few irregular pores on the snout, thirty-six scales on the lateral line and seven rows across the body.
HAB. Mishmee mountains. Griff. Coll."
[A coloured drawing of each species is given, together with a detailed account of whatever is known regarding it.]
ART. IV.-Account of a Journey from Sumbulpúr to Mednipúr, through the Forests of Orissa. By LIEUT. M. KITTOE.
(Concluded from page 606.)
I marched from Mednipúr about the middle of December of the past year, and proceeded by the regular dawk stages as far as Doodkhùndí a small village beyond Ghooteah, distant thirty-six miles. From this place I left the road and proceeded to Gopíbullubpùr, a town on the right bank of the Subunreeka river and about eight miles due south.
On first leaving Mednipúr the Cossai river is crossed (forded) and the high iron-stone formation (at the extremity of which the town stands) is quitted. The road (if it deserves such a name) passes over low land as far as the second dawk station called Chardeh, a little beyond this the iron-stone is again met with, and forms the southern limit of the level valley of the Cossai, which is throughout highly cultivated
• From Μακρος long, σωμα the body.
It also agrees with that species in the form of its fins; the presence of two very minute cirri being my chief reason for separating them, I have not thought it necessary to give a figure.
and thickly populated; the chief cultivation appears to be rice, there is however some indigo, also sugar-cane.
From Chardeh to Ektale (the 5th stage) there is but very little clear and cultivated land, consequently much jungle; a little cultivation occurs near Bajennah (the 3rd stage) also near Purooliah (the 4th). The soil is much the same as that of Mednipúr, perhaps a little more sandy. Although there is so much dense jungle, there are evidences of the land having once been cultivated, and were it cleared I should think that the soil would prove rich and well adapted to the growth of cotton.
Ektale is a large village on the edge of the high iron-stone formation, here bordering what may be termed the valley of the Dolung river, and (like that of the Cossai) fertile and well cultivated. There are several large villages right and left of the road towards Ghooteah, which is on the high land to the opposite side of the valley, distant four miles from Ektale.
Messrs. MacDonald have an indigo factory near Ghooteah and much plant is grown on the high grounds in its vicinity.
There appears to be much low jungle to the northward of the road, and a considerable belt to the southward also, beyond this towards the valley of the Subunreeka in the Dholbhoom and Maunbhoom districts (commencing near Ghooteah) the country is open and well cultivated, I remarked some very fine gram and mustard, and should think that superior wheat, barley, and flax might be grown throughout this tract, likewise sugar-cane. The scenery is very beautiful, particularly towards the southern and western horizon, the Semulpal, Kussum, and Baumunghatti hills in Mohurbhunj add greatly to the beauty of the landscape, and when the broad bed of the Subunreeka is full in the rains, it must also contribute no small share of elegance to the picture.
I halted a couple of days near Gopíbullubpúr, which is a very large village belonging to a Gosain; a little to the northward are several other villages close together, the principal of which is Nyabussaun, it gives name to a large purgunnah belonging to Mohurbhunj. The Raja has given it on a long lease to Messrs. MacIntosh, indigo planters, who have several factories on the Maunbhoom side of the river, one of which is opposite to Gopíbullubpúr; their bungalow was burnt down the night previous to my arrival. The Mohurbhunj people appear dissatisfied with the arrangements above alluded to, they seem to be averse to the cultivation of indigo, thinking that it impoverishes the land.
I wished to have advanced to the hills where the pass over which the dawk travels, is situated, but so determined were the people to prevent me, that I was obliged to alter my course. I did not lose much by it as I was enabled to survey the country along the right bank of the river and its vicinity, which had never yet been done. This portion of the Subunreeka valley is very fertile, but, of no great extent inland; undulating ground, and beds of shingle, covered with dense jungle occur, forming a belt that divides it, from the valley of the Boorabalung river, which rising in the Semulpal hills, winds under those of Kussum and Bunkatí, then flowing in a southerly direction towards the Nílgur hills under Balasore, finally empties itself into the sea near Bullramgurhí.
There is little or no fine timber on the belt of high land above alluded to; I passed over it in two marches, and entered the Boorabalung valley, then continued in a north-westerly direction to Bunkatí, the principal village of the purgunnah of Ooperbaugh. I crossed the Boorabalung which is a very clear, rapid stream, about kneedeep, with very steep banks; its course is here very tortuous, there are many rapids; I re-crossed it before reaching Bunkatí near to which place, I halted a couple of days. There are falls over some talcose rocks about a mile below the village, the spot is held sacred. The water does not fall from any great height, but the strange appearance of the rocks and the wooded banks of the stream, which above the falls is still and deep, render the scene very beautiful. The singular appearance of the rocks (talcose) is occasioned by the strata being vertical or nearly so, they lean against a totally different formation, which appears to be basalt in different stages of decomposition.
I here observed a very simple, though ingenious, way of entrapping fish. In one part of the falls, in a narrow space between two rocks, there is a long slanting thatch fastened, from the lower end of which is a fine basket work frame, slanting at a wider angle than the former, and above it; the fish in attempting to leap, fall on to the thatch and slip down to the lower part of it, from whence they cannot escape. The crafty Brahmuns impose on the people by telling them that the presiding "Thacoor" or deity has the power thus to cause the fish to sacrifice themselves to him or her. The Brahmuns remove the fish early in the morning, and cook them in their " Bhog mundup" temple cook-house; the first dish is placed as an offering before the idol, for the consecration of the whole, which is eaten by the attendant priests, or distributed to their friends.
The village of Bunkatí is nearly deserted, as well as most others in