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which the chief valley is that of Punjsher; Ghoshund and Bamian are not included in this term, and lie more to the west within the skirts of the Paraparnisan. East of the valley of Cabul, after a considerable descent, we arrive at the country of Lughman, lying low, under lofty branches of the great northern chain. It is situated to the north or left of the Cabul river, is on the right in the most frequented roads from Peshawur to Cabul, and is of an extent far inferior to that of the valley of Cabul. To the south-east it borders on Jellalabad, a city and district on the right of the Cabul river, diversified with mountains, hills, and plains; its plain is somewhat less spacious than that of Lughman. The city of Jellalabad is passed in all the roads from Peshawur to Cabul, between which places it is nearly intermediate. To the south is the White mountain, the loftiest of the range of 34° north, and north-east of Jellalabad beyond the Cabul river is the narrow valley of Koonur, lying on the left of the Kashkar river, which joins that of Cabul opposite Jellalabad. To the west of Koonur lies Lughman.

22. In the enumeration of the chains of mountains, have been already mentioned a branch proceeding from the great northern mountains along the left of the Kashkar river (6) and a branch or branches leaving the range of 34° to the east of Jellalabad, and running in a north-east direction (11). The detached branches of these appear to unite, and together they divide the various districts already mentioned, from the greatest of the plains, which are situated between the great northern and the 34° chain of mountains. This great plain lies from the foregoing in easterly directions. Although there be no complete interruption to the continuity of this plain, yet do the strait roads between its detached portions sometimes pass over branches from the mountains which bound the whole; that between Peshawur and Bajour conducts north-west, through the Mikmund or Ootman hills (11); we may therefore distinguish Bajour, with the adjoining districts of Punjkera, from the remainder of this great plain which may be called from Peshawur the greatest city it contains. Bajour is peopled by the Purkulanee tribe of Afghans, who are not a part of the Yoosufzyes as supposed by Major Rennel. The chief inhabitants of Koonur are the Degans, who here speak a peculiar tongue. Punjkora is so called as being peopled by five houses or branches of a subdivision of the Yoosufzyes. The plain of Peshawur after those reductions is still comparatively spacious in a country so mountainous as Afghanistan. To the north it has the great northern range, which sends branches into it, forming the upper parts of Swad and Bhooner, while

the lower are level; to the south it has the range of 34°; and to the east the Indus. Its western boundary has been already detailed. The Yoosufzyes are a numerous tribe, who disregard the royal authority.

23. South of Cabul is the table land of Ghuznee, the boundaries of which to the east, north, and west, have been already mentioned. To the south or south-west it slopes into Khoorasan. It is far from being a perfect plain, having many slight inequalities. Proceeding eastward, we find the Jajee valley, that of the Torees, and others proceeding from the south side of the range of 34°, and some of less note which penetrate into that of 32° and the Jadran range. At a considerable distance to the south-east is the valley of Bunnoo, situated between the salt range, and the range of 32° towards its eastern extremity. It is of an extent far inferior to that of Peshawur. A branch of the salt range divides it from the narrow territory peopled by the Eesa Khel tribe and others to the north-east. It lies on the right of the Indus, and terminates to the north, where that river is closely hemmed in at Kalabagh by the hills. These hills divide it to the north-west from Malgeen, as they divide Malgeen on the north from Bunnoo on the south. Kohat lies still more to the north under the range of 34°, and to the west it has Upper Bungeish, a hilly tract. Both Malgeen and Kohat are diversified moreover with very low hills, which seem generally to be from east to west. Neither are spacious.

24. The Eesa Khel plain is bounded to the south by the river Koorm. Beyond that river seems to begin what is by the natives called Daman, a term strictly meaning the lands at the foot of a range of mountains or hills; in this instance it has perhaps a more general meaning, and includes even some low hills of this quarter. It ends to the south at Sunghur, where begins Sindh. Like most other terms partly descriptive partly arbitrary, it is not by all used in the same latitude, and it seems doubtful whether we are to include in it that tract in which is situated Dera Ismael Khan, and which the natives call Mukulwad. It lies on the right of the Indus, which bounds it to the east. The hills are here at a considerable distance from the river, but both to north and south they approach nearer it. The Dawan most strictly so called, lies west from Mukulwad. I know not whe ther it be considered as extending to the south, between Upper Sindh and the Sooleemanee hills (see Para. 14.)

25. There being little to add respecting the southern parts of Afghanistan not comprehended in Khoorasan, we may proceed to Sindh

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beginning as before mentioned at Sunghur, a place lying in north latitude 30° 40', and east longitude 70° 45'. The term Sindh seems to have been originally descriptive; Sindh in the ancient Hinduwee signified ocean, or great river. The people inhabiting the borders of the Indus in process of time applied it to that river as being the greatest and most important; they knew rivers are in all countries great features of a country, but chiefly where it is low and champaign; we need not therefore be surprized if in such cases the tracts lying along the various rivers be named after them. This practice has probably been 2 more general in former times, before foreign conquest introduced new and arbitrary terms, and fiscal or political divisions were adopted, little coincident with natural ones; the last, however, are those chiefly recognized by the cultivators, and various instances still remain to exemplify the principle just mentioned. Were it applied in strictness, Sindh would include all the country at a moderate distance from the river Indus, from its exit from the great northern mountains to the sea. In modern times at least other distinctions have quite superseded the term, if ever applied to the upper course of the Indus. It still remains applicable to the lower, during which it is that this great river is of most importance to the subsistence and comforts of the inhabitants. From Sunghur to the sea, the low fertile country to the right of the Indus is named Sindh; whether on the left bank of the river it ascends to the same latitude seems doubtful. On the one hand Buhawulpoor on the Ghara, at a considerable distance from the Indus, is considered as comprised in Sindh; on the other, Mooltan cannot be denied to lie in the Punjab. Leaving this in uncertainty, we may remark, that from Sunghur to the sea are three natural divisions. 1st. The most northerly in which lies Dera Ghazee Khan, and which may be called Upper Sindh, it may be said to end with the Sooleemanee hills. 2nd. The middle division, comprizing the country of the Muzarees, who are independent Beeloches, and south of them the district of Shickarpoor. 3rd. The most southerly, now under the government of chiefs of the Talpoora tribe-this may be called Nether Sindh. To this alone it is that in our maps is given the name of Sindh or Sindhee, but all authority of native writers or native use is against this restriction, which if persevered in, must give rise in our dealings with the people of the country to frequent mistake. Sindh is a narrow champaign country. Its greatest width is in the middle division, and near the sea where the Indus forms a delta. The length may be 400 English miles and the average breadth 50. To the south is the Indian ocean, to the east is the great Indian desert, and

beyond it the Rajpoot states. The country of Kuchh extends from the most southern part of Sindh, in an eastern direction, towards Goojrat. It lies along the Indian ocean, and the name seems originally to have implied border or edge', but as the lands bordering rivers are usually low, Kuchh, Kuchhee, and other words from that root seem now in numerous cases to mean low and moist lands near rivers. To the north, Sindh has Mukulwad, the Daman, and the Punjab.

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26. West of Sindh lies Bulochistan, there is here however a tract of country which is to be distinguished from both; if included in Bulochistan, it would form its north-east corner, and it lies west of the middle and of part of the upper Sindh; Aboolfuzl seems to have called it Seeweestan-a general term now little in use, but very convenient for us to retain. It contains Seewee, Gunduwah, Dhadur, Laree Bhag, Naree, perhaps Hurnd and Dhajul, and some other towns and districts. It is itself a plain, but has in most quarters low hills for boundaries. A hilly but by no means mountainous tract intervenes between it and Candahar, and in that tract live the Tureens and some other Afghan tribes, while to the traveller's right hand are the Hakurs. At Gunduwah begin hills, and the country is hilly to Kelat, a distance of 120 miles in a direction about north-west. Kelat must be considered as the capital of Bulochistan, though not the greatest city. The surrounding country is but poor. In the western part of Bulochistan are the cities, towns, or districts, of Keech Mikran, Punjgoor, Dezuk, Bempoor, and others; this last is nearly SSW. of Jellalabad, the capital of Seestan, from which it is distant 13 days journey. Of these the three only nearest to Jellalabad are inhabited when the direct road is chosen, but it is said there is a road more to the east which conducts through a country generally inhabited. From Bempoor to the sea it is said to be ten days, and to the first town in Kirman five days. In both cases the country is reported to be inhabited. On the coast of Bulochistan are some harbours of which the most noted is Kirachee, the longitude of which is not very different from that of Kelat. Nearly intermediate between them is Belo. The information is very scanty which is to be gained concerning Bulochistan, a circumstance which perhaps evinces it to be a country little productive or practicable. The chief population of Seeweèstan is Indian, but the Beeloches are generally speaking the masters of the country. They are themselves divided into two nations, which were probably distinct in early times. The Koorgal nation is the superior, and its residence is chiefly in the west, and in the hilly tract wherein is situated Kelat. The Rind tribes dwell in the eastern quarters,

and are also the chief population of the south-west, so that in numbers they exceed the other nation.

27. To the north of Seeweestan lie the countries of various Afghan tribes; to the north of the western part of Bulochistan lies the country of the Bureches, that of the Dooranees, and Seestan; but the country of the Dooranees stretches a considerable distance beyond in a north-westerly direction. All these are included in Khoorasan. From Candahar to Hirat is a distance of 300 miles from ESE. to WNW. On the traveller's right is the Paraparnisan range, on his left Seestan, of which the capital Jellalabad lies 150 miles west by south from Candahar. From Jellalabad nearly due west, at the distance of 190 miles, is Nih, which though under a separate government is perhaps to be considered as in Seestan. From Nih the country of Ghaeen and Birjund lies north, and is of considerable extent. It lies from Hirat south-west, and from Furah (a considerable place on the left of the road between Candahar and Hirat) west. From Ghaeen, north-west, are Toorshish and Mushhud, which last place lies from Hirat more in a westerly than northerly direction. The country of Khaf lies west of Hirat, and north-west of it, towards Mushhud, is that of Toorbut. Jam and Murv lie to the north. The Afghan dominions end a short distance to the west of Hirat. These divisions which have been enumerated are political ones. The face of the country is too little known, and even if known, is probably too irregular and diversified to be distributed into natural divisions of well marked characters. But the country of the Ymaks, lying to the east of Hirat, is distinguished from all the others as being decidedly hilly, though indeed it possesses some wide valleys and some plains contiguous to the hilly tracts. these last the chief is that which lies north from the hilly tracts, but forms part of the north-east boundary of Khoorasan, and in which is situated Huburmach, a place already mentioned. To prevent mistakes it may be observed, that though this tract in general may justly be called the country of the Ymaks, part of that nation is found at some distance from it.


28. We have now rapidly sketched the countries lying west of the Indus, or north of its sources, and proceed to those lying eastward of it. Little Tibet has been already mentioned. It seems to be a country not easily practicable, for we are informed, that the trade from Kushmeer to Yarkund once passed through it because of the road by great Tibet having been forbidden, and that this was considered as an inconvenience. It is certain, a strait line between Kushmeer and Yarkund would pass through the little rather than the great

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