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current through the valley of Peshawur, which it fertilizes. A short distance below Micknee it divides into two branches; the lesser, usually called the Shuhalum river from a village of that name, passes only four miles to the north of Peshawur. It unites twenty-five miles in a straight line from the point of division with the Hadezy or other branch, which had previously received from the north-east the river of Swad, inferior to itself. The river is now completely formed, and proceeds to the Indus a distance of thirty-five miles. It divides (though not exactly) the Yoosufzyes to the north from the Khutuks and other obedient tribes to the south. The, Mihmudzy tribe inhabit chiefly the district of Hushtungur, lying on the left bank of the Swad river. In the Doab between it and the Hadezy live the Gugeeanees, and the upper Mihmunds and Ootman- Khel tribe bound them to the north and west. In the island of Hadezy and Shuhalum live the Daoodzyes; south of them and the Shuhalum are the Khuleels, who live chiefly to the west of Peshawur, and the lower Mihmunds who live chiefly to the east of it; to the east of them are the northern Khutuks. The people of the south of the plain draw but little water for irrigation from the river; their neighbourhood to Peshawur and the great road exposes them to oppression and military rapine. The canals which formerly existed are now in a state of complete or partial decay. The Boodhunee however which rises from springs in the plain is increased to twice its natural size by the introduction of water from the Shuhalum. The Bara is a more important stream, though in size very inconsiderable. It rises to the south-west in Teera, a well peopled district, situated high on the range of 34°, and diversified with hill and plain; whatever is suffered by the Afreedees, or people of that country, to flow to the plain, is by the government appropriated in the following manner-A certain quantity reckoned by the number of mills it can (if required) turn is taken for the use of the city and gardens of Peshawur. The remainder is to be equally divided be tween the lower Mihmunds and the Khuleels, but no rule has been established which does not give rise to unceasing jealousies and suspicions between these two parties, which often break forth into open
39. If computed from its western sources to its mouth, the general course of the Ukora river is a little to the south of east, according to the direction of the range of 34°, and in length, in a strait line, about 200 miles; but its greatest streams come from the north. The Kashkar river rises remote in the table land. Before piercing the great northern range it receives from the east the Sheesa, which rises
After crossing the line of the
behind them, contrary to the Ubaseen. great northern range it still remains hemmed in by its branches (see para. 6) and continues to its mouth a rapid stream. It is navigable for rafts only as far as Asmar, seventy-five miles from its mouth; thence upwards it is exceedingly rocky. In the ebb season it is fordable by horsemen in various places, and in some, a party of men on foot, by joining hands, can with difficulty cross it. At Chughsuraee it receives from the right the stream of Pech, running in a valley of that name, through which leads a road north-west to Budukhshan. The other northern stream is that of Swad, which has a general course from the north-east. Arrived in the plains it is joined in the north-west by the inferior stream of Punjkora. near Khizree Khel, forty miles from Peshawur.
40. The other additions to the Indus are but inconsiderable. Pukhlee and Bhooner have their rivulets and torrents, and in the former may be noticed the fern much used in agriculture. The Huro rising in the territory of the Gakhurs (see para. 16) intersects Huzara and part of Chhuchh, but leaving it falls into the Indus between Attoc and Neelab, in the country of the Khutuks. The Swan, a much superior stream, rises in the district of Moozufferabad, and passing through Pothwar and some other districts of that Doab joins the Indus some miles above Kalabagh. The To rising in upper Bungush and Teera, waters Kohat and falls into the Indus after a short course. Malgeen has its rivulet. Bunnoo is well watered by the Koorm. This river has very numerous sources draining the left of the salt range, part of the left of that of 34°, the Jadran range, and the right of that of 321°. Perhaps the chief is that which is traced to the White mountain, in which case the Koorm has a course from north-west to south-east. Its greatest tributary is the Gum. beela, rising in the western part of the range of 32°; even at its mouth the Koorm is but a small river, and probably discharges not more than a tenth of the water discharged by the Ukora river. Still less is the Gomul, whose course is near the south or right of the range of 324. It does not in ordinary times reach the Indus, but is expended in the agriculture of the Daman. After heavy rains however it exceeds the demands made on it, and spreads itself over the Daman and Mukulwad on its way to the Indus.
41. In Afghanistan, south of the Gomul, and in the whole of Bulochistan is no stream of magnitude or whose waters reach the sea; it is in like manner with the Persian Khoorasan; but in the Afghan Khoorasan are some considerable ones. The greatest is the Kelbund
which rises contrary to the Ghorbund stream. After running a considerable distance in the Huzara country it enters that of the Dooranees, and passes to the west of Girishk. It finally discharges itself into the lake of Seestan. It is a rapid river, especially during the first part of its course, and the quantity is certainly considerable in the summer, but Mr. Forster who passed it at Girishk on the 17th November, 1783, describes it, without naming it, as a small stream of good water. In the ebb season it is fordable in certain places, but in that of the floods must be passed by means of boats or by means of pumpkins. Except towards Seestan, where the bottom is composed of sand only, the channel has a mixture of stone and sand. The banks are generally high, and the river never sends natural branches to a considerable distance. Art however has drawn out some canals. The most famous is that made by the late Payenda Khan Barukzy, and lately repaired in the midst of civil broils by his son and successor Futteh Khan. It is drawn from the right of the river. The general course of the Helbund is about south-west.
42. Not far below Girishk it receives the Urghundab from the left. This stream is of far inferior magnitude, and in the ebb season is easily fordable in all places. It rises in the south-eastern extremities of the Paraparnisan, not far from Sooltan Safee, and has Candahar not far distant from its left bank. It is afterwards joined by the Turnuk, or rather by a part of that little stream, for another part is lost in sands. The Turnuk drains part of the Kakur country and of the table land of Ghuznee, and is reckoned to have its principal source near Mookr. Equal to the Urghundab is the Khashrood, that stream which runs under Dilaram to its right. It rises in the Paraparnisan chain, and after a course nearly south falls into the Helbund near Kohinsheen, three days journey below Girishk. The Furahrood, so called from Furah, which is situated on its left bank, also rises in the Paraparnisan, but from parts of it more westerly; it never joins the Helbund, but pursues a separate course into Seestan, where according to some accounts it gains the lake; but according to others, is in the ebb season at least lost in the sands. It is twice as large as the Khashrood, and its course seems to be south-east.
43. Such are the streams which take their rise in the south side of the Paraparnisan. From the west rises the river of Hirat, called by the people of Khoorasan Pool-i-Malan,' and by those of Toorkistan 'Tejun'; it is the Ochus of the ancients, and is said formerly to have reached the Caspian sea. At present it is lost in the desert south of
the Oxus in a direction north-west of Hirat. 'It is twice crossed in
the ordinary road from Candahar through Hirat to Persia. Except in the season of rain it is very small, and much of its waters are expended in agriculture. The ancient Margus or modern Murghab, whose sources are not far distant from those of the Ochus, is perhaps of an equal size. It runs nearly due north, and after passing Muro, at some distance to its left, pursues a solitary course through sands to the Oxus, which it barely reaches. A considerable rivulet from the Paraparnisan, waters successively the districts of Mymuna and Undkho, but never gains the Oxus. Bulkh has eighteen streams, but of those some are canals drawn by art from natural ones, rising in the mountains to the south. None of them can aspire to the name of a river. That called the Bulkhab is the chief. Advancing eastward we come to the stream of Khoollum, and after it, that of Koonduz, which is more considerable, and composed of three principal branches draining Talikan, Ishkumish, and Ghoree. This last is the most to the west or left of the three. The middle one it is which is sometimes known by the name of Bungee. The river composed of these three streams is equal to the Swad, and pursues a north-westerly course to the Oxus.
44. That great river, according to information received by Lieut. Macartney, rises from a glacier of the Poosht-i-Khur, a lofty mountain of the Belur. The natives of the country content themselves with tracing it to Durwaz, and usually confess their ignorance of its earlier progress. The first considerable stream it receives is the Soorkhab, or river of Keerategin, it afterwards joins the Koocha from Budukhshan, and the Oxus now ceases to be fordable. From being very rapid and precipitous, it now gradually assumes the character of stillness, and gently glides over a sandy bed to the Aral lake, where it is lost. Besides the tributaries already mentioned, the Zurufshan, or river of Bokhara, joins it when flooded; it has a south-westerly course. That of Keerategin runs nearly south, the Koocha north-west. The Zurufshan is but an inconsiderable stream in quantity of water, but is indispensible to the agriculture of Samarkand and Bokhara. The Oxus is by the natives of Toorkistan called Umoo, a name which strangers change to Hamoo; but during its upper course among the mountains it is called Punj. Its course is not much to the north of west.
45. The extreme sources of the Jaxartes are not far distant from those of the Oxus, but it holds a more northerly course. Towards its mouth however it is said again to approach the Oxus, and according to some it actually joins it before it falls into the Aral. In size it is much inferior, although a considerable river. Its chief tributary is the Chilchik, which falls into it from the north-east, a few miles above
Tashkund. The Jaxartes is now called Sir or Seer, but the Arabian geographers name it Syhoon, and the Oxus, Jyhoon. In the winter it is to be crossed in some places on the ice, but in summer rafts are used. In the Oxus both rafts and boats are used. The practice with respect to both, and on both rivers, is to yoke to them the passenger's horses and cause them to transport them across by swimming. Of the Neelum we know only that it falls into the lake of Aral, and comes from an easterly point.
46. Nor is our knowledge much more detailed of the streams of Chinese Toorkistan. All of them seem to be collected in one river, ultimately lost in a lake beyond Toorfan. Even this river is not reported to be of very great magnitude: this is another reason to disbelieve the existence of a very high and snowy range in this quarter, for such is ever found to give source to great streams (see para. 7.) The Tukkus is laid down in the latest maps as running north into the Russian territory, but according to the information received by us, runs south into the Chinese. The geography of this country seems destined to remain long obscure. It is no longer the scene of important events, nor does it lie in the line of traveller's routes. The cities of Kashghur and Yarkund are indeed visited by merchants of Kushmeer, Push war, Budukhshan, and Toorkistan, and from them tea, silver, and some other Chinese commodities are diffused over the neighbouring counFew however proceed further, and inquiry is scarcely safe. under the jealous and vigilant government of China.
47. Most of the lakes of note have been already alluded to. The greatest is the Aral, which receives all the rivers of Toorkistan. Its waters are salt. Those of the lake of Seestan are slightly brackish. The whole of this last can be seen in one view by a spectator from the shore. It is encompassed by a tract of marshy land overgrown with reeds and aquatics, and a day's journey in breadth. In the middle is a little high island and on it a fort, this island is called Koh-i-zoor, and is in north latitude 31° 35' and east longitude 63° 25'. The well known Dul and Oollur are situated in Kushmeer. latter is formed by the Uidusta; the former is unconnected with it, except that when raised by rains it discharges its superfluous waters into that river. No particulars are yet known of the lake of Toorfan (see para. 46) which is perhaps fabulous. Neither the