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the seat of the most intolerable heat, because situated not far from temperate climates, and still the annual heat be under that of Delhi.
50. Bajour and Punjkora are considerably cooler in summer and colder in winter than Peshawur; a winter does not pass without a fall of snow, which is perhaps not melted in less than two days, sometimes a much longer space. Even in Koonar snow falls, though it soon melts except in the shade. Lughman is warmer in a small degree than Koonar, and Jellalabad than Lughman. These positions are to be understood of the plains only of these countries; the hills and mountains are cooler than they, and in a degree proportionate to their height. But during the summer there is generated the most excessive heat among the low hills of the Turnkzy tribe of the upper Mihmunds, which from their bareness and dryness are commonly called the Bedoulut hills. Kohat is supposed to be a little cooler than Peshawur, and Malgeen is probably of a temperature the same as that of Kohat. Bunnoo and Eesa-Khel cannot be very different. The plains of Chhuchh-Huzara and Pukhlee are probably a little cooler than that part of the plain of Peshawur in which the city is situated. Moozufferabad is cooler than they, but is still to be pronounced a warm climate. Snow falls in Khanpoor of the Gukhurs. The more southern parts of this Doab are warmer.
51. The nether part of the Punjab, which includes Mooltan, is far warmer than the upper, and that for several reasons-a lower latitude, rains much more scanty, and the greater distance of cold mountains. The winter in Mooltan seems severer than in our provinces, and as in Bengal is accompanied with mists. The summer-heat, on the other hand, is probably greater. Mooltan, Seeweestan, and the Daman, are proverbial for heat. The nether Sindh is perhaps cooler, although situated more to the south, because it has more abundant rains. Its summer is certainly far cooler, being moderated by the neighbourhood of the sea; but, on the other hand, the same circumstance abates the cold of its winter. Notwithstanding its lowness, and probably moisture, the climate is much commended, especially in the southern parts. The country of Kuchh and the coasts of Bulochistan have a similar climate, neither hot in summer nor cold in winter. Kirachee is represented as unhealthy. The interior of Bulochistan is in general a hot country, but when the hills rise to a considerable height the climate becomes temperate. In Kilat snow lies on the ground during the greater part of winter; the summer however is warm. There are some inhabited places even colder than this in Bulochistan, on the whole however that country must be described as a warm one.
52. Cabul must be reckoned a temperate, perhaps a cold climate. In the three signs of the zodiac, Sagittarius, Capricornus, and Aquarius, the snow lies in the neighbourhood of the city. In Pisces it melts in the low and frequented places, but remains in the higher and less frequented. In this month are copious falls of rain, sleet, and snow. The first day of the ensuing sign of Aries is the vernal equinox, by the Persians and the people of these countries called Nouraz, because with it the natural year is considered as commencing. In Persia especially it is celebrated with much joy and festivity. In this month whatever remains of the snow melts in the plains. The summer which now succeeds is so temperate that the heat in the shade is never disagreeable, and no night is so warm as that a thick covering can be dispensed with. But the heat of the summer's day must be greater and steadier than in England, since rice and maize ripen in this district. The heat of the mid-day sun is indeed described as very great, and equally disagreeable as in the warm climate of Peshawur, where though the heat be unquestionably greater, its effects on the feelings and constitution are moderated by a more copious perspiration. The fact is to be accounted for, not by supposing the atmosphere of Cabul a moist one, for on the contrary the air of high places is usually dry, but by the difference of temperature. A temperature uniformly high, both in the sun and shade, in Peshawur keeps open the pores, which thus admit of a perspiration which relieves the body, but in Cabul they are kept shut by the coolness of the air in the shade. Cabul although warmer in the summer than England, is probably colder in winter. This we are to attribute to a situation more inland, and a sky less overcast; for it is certain that clouds moderate both heat and cold, as indicated by the thermometer. The climate is on the whole good, but is more commended by the opulent than the poor, of whom many leave the district in the winter for the warmer ones to the east, induced by the severity of the cold, the scarcity of fuel, and the difficulty of obtaining employment and wages in that
53. The valley of Cabul itself is diversified with inequalities of surface and varieties of exposure, and the neighbouring districts still more so. The temperature varies accordingly often within short distances, and it is impossible to give accounts more than generally true. The Kohdamun is colder than the immediate vicinity of Cabul, or the eastern part of the valley. The Kohistan and Ghorbund are colder than the Kohdamun. The summer heat of Ghorbund is said to be distressing to the Huzaras of the neighbouring hills. We have
seen that the Huzara mountains are not of the greatest height, but the cultivated and inhabited valleys being little beneath the level of the mountains are remarkable for their cold. In some of them the wheat harvest is scarcely completed in September. Some of those which open towards Bactria are warmer than Cabul, and the cotton plant is cultivated with advantage. In Cabul it may be and is raised, but the produce is little. Ghuznee and all the places situated on that high plain are noted for cold. That city is said to have been buried in snow nine days after the vernal equinox, yet I apprehend the real cold is not very different from that of Cabul, since the operations of agriculture and the harvest are but a few days later. To the feelings the cold of Ghuznee is made more sensible because of the want of
shelter in the country. Mookr and Kura-Bagh are warmer than Cabul, and from Ghuznee to Candahar the temperature increases every stage.
54. Kushmeer is like Cabul a high valley, and in latitude somewhat more northerly. It is certain the winter is milder both in reality and to the feelings. The same periods are indeed assigned to it, and the snow lies during the same month, but it does not possess that cold felt in Cabul. The natives with no other protection to their feet than sandals of rice-straw travel in it without apprehension, and even in the depth of winter pass the heights which separate their valley from Kishtwar and its other dependencies to the south. Instances are rare of their losing their toes or fingers by the frost, but this is no uncommon occurrence to travellers in the countries of Cabul and Ghuznee. The wolf of Kushmeer has not that ferocity which he possesses in the severer winter of the last mentioned quarters. It is true the Vidusta is sometimes frozen over, whereas the river of Cabul after the junction of the Ghorbund stream never is; but a sufficient cause of this difference is seen in its greater rapidity. The summer of Kushmeer is probably of the same temperature as that of Cabul, but it is oftener cooled by showers. The complexion of the natives, which is usually a yellowish sallow, seems to indicate a climate on the whole warmer than Cabul. The Cabulies descended of families long established in their valley, are nearly as fair as Englishmen. To the feelings it is certain Cabul has the colder air, by reason of its breezy climate, while Kushmeer is a still climate.
55. It would be a tedious task (even were it possible) to particularize the temperatures of the various inhabited places among the mountains and hills already enumerated. They may often be conjectured to a considerable degree of accuracy by adverting to some circumstan
ces formerly detailed-the height of the hills, their character, whether steep or tame, and that of their valleys, whether deep and narrow, or the contrary. Slopes and plains even of moderately high hills have a cool and healthy air, but deep vales in the bosom of even the highest mountains have a hot summer, rendered still more disagreeable by stagnation of air, yet even they are warm only in comparison with their immediate neighbourhood. Of this class is the valley of Chitrul, so called from a town situated on the Kashkar river, and the capital of one of the four principalities of that country, (see paragraph 17.) The numerous valleys of Swad, Bhooner, and Pukhlee are warm, as is that of Khost, comprehended in the revenue division of Bunnoo, from which it lies in a westerly direction, in the bosom of the range of 321. The valley of Jajee is as cold as Cabul, that of Toree is warmer. Teera situated on the range of 34°, Oorgoon on that of 321°, parts of upper Bungush, and the valleys in the Jadran range are somewhat warmer than Cabul. Zhob, in the Kakur country, is much warmer than Cabul, but much colder than Candahar. Even Pushing, or as the Afghans call it Psheen, the country of the Tureens, is somewhat cooler than Candahar; but Shorabuk, or the country of the Bureches, is of the same temperature.
56. The country of the Dooranees considered as a whole, is of a temperature intermediate between Cabul and Peshawur, but exhibits considerable diversities within its own extent. Teeree, inhabited partly by Huzaras partly by Dooranees, is a cold place, falling not much short of the warmer parts of Cabul. The country called Zumeendawur, lying on the right of the Helbund in its further No winter there passes progress (see para. 41) is a temperate one. without snow, but to it succeeds the gurm seer (so called even in Tamerlane's time) in which there falls no snow. It lies WSW. of Candahar, which is only a little cooler. In some winters snow falls there, but it soon melts. The intensity of the summer heat is however moderated by western and northern breezes, and close nights are quite unknown. Few towns are more healthy than Candahar. Furah, although in a latitude somewhat higher, is warmer than Candahar; Subzwar, or Isfazar of the Zooree tribe, is much cooler, by reason of its being situated on high land. Hirat is still cooler, and is probably not very different from Bokhara, to be afterwards mentioned. Still colder are the vallies of the Ymaks, which are yet far more temperate than those of the Huzaras, and generally speaking similar to Cabul. In Muro snow lies but a short time after falling. Toorshish is in a temperature perhaps the same as Hirat, and
Mushhud is considerably colder than both. Mushhud and Kilat of the Beéloches may be conjectured to have an animal heat not very different. Ghaeen and Birjund are various in different places, but generally may be pronounced intermediate between Hirat and Candahar. Seestan is warmer than the gurm seer, yet contains hills on which snow falls in the winter. The great desert to the south has a most sultry climate.
57. Snow falls every winter in the whole of Toorkistan, unless indeed there be any exception in the deserts towards the Caspian, of which our information is in most particulars very scanty. This country sloping westward, the eastern quarters are the coldest; but in the distance of a few miles there is frequently great differences of climate. It also deserves remark, that the kingdom of Bokhara and other parts west, being open countries, are also windy, and their air sharper to the feelings in the winter than that of the east. But no doubt exists of their real cold being less, for their winter is shorter, and the snow sooner melts. In Bokhara it seldom rains, but snows in the sign Sagittarius, which begins the 20th November. Snow falls knee deep in the course of the ensuing month Capricornus, and that quantity melts in five days. In some years there happens much greater falls, and it has been known to snow after the vernal equinox. The spring and autumn are generally temperate, and two months only of the summer are hot, namely Cancer, which begins the 20th of June, and Leo, but especially the former; the noonday winds then feel warm, but close nights are not known. The natives are not so fair as the Cabulies. Khwaruzm is warmer than Bokhara; the kingdom of Kokur is colder, and has both a healthier and pleasanter climate, though Bokhara cannot be said to be unhealthy. Taskund is nearly similar. The Kinghuzes live in a colder country than the Kuzzaks, whose country is yet colder than Bokhara, and not much warmer than Taskund, which borders on it to the east. Keerategin is a cold country, but some places are much colder than others. The town of Durwaz is noted in its own neighbourhood for heat, being situated in a deep and narrow valley.
58. Budukhshan being composed of vallies which take their origin in mountains covered with perpetual snow, and whose months have nearly the same level as the lower parts of Toorkistan, thus possesses great diversity of climate. In many of the loftier parts the crops are in some seasons spoiled by the frosts before ripening. All the considerable places, however, lie in temperate climates. Fyzabad is warmer than Cabul. The Koocha is not known to freeze at that town or